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Aide:Modèles

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Si vous avez des textes de référence que vous souhaitez inclure sur plusieurs pages, la fonction de modèle MediaWiki entre en jeu.

Création[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Les modèles sont des pages wiki standard dont le contenu est conçu pour être transcluded (embedded) à l'intérieur d'autres pages. Les modèles sont par convention précédé du noms: "Modèle:", l'assignant à cet espace de noms. Ensuite, vous pouvez les créer comme n'importe quelle autre page wiki.

Usage[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Templates are wiki pages which can be used in other pages in three ways:

  • {{Name}} 'transcludes' (i.e. includes a copy of) the content of the template (stored in the page [[Template:Name]]) whenever the page containing the template transclusion is fetched and displayed; i.e. if the template is later changed, the displayed transcluding page will automatically change too
  • {{subst:Name}} replaces that string with the contents of the template, in the source of the transcluding page, when you save that page; the copy of the template contents can then be edited normally (and separately from the original in the template page). To Note: don't use this if you are looking to continually propagate changes from the source template to the page(s) that references it.
  • {{msgnw:Name}} includes the template in a form that displays it as raw wiki syntax (the way <nowiki> does) when the page containing it is fetched.

In fact, an ordinary wiki page can also be used as a template, simply by specifying the namespace it resides in, so:

  • {{Template:Pagename}} includes [[Template:Pagename]]
  • {{Foo:Pagename}} includes [[Foo:Pagename]]
  • {{:Pagename}} includes [[Pagename]]
    • {{subst::Pagename}} replaces itself with the contents of [[Pagename]]

If no such namespace exists, the full title is assumed to be a template:

  • {{Foo:Bar}} includes [[Template:Foo:Bar]]

Parameters[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Template with numbered parameters
 
'''A little thank you...'''<br />
<small>for {{{1}}}.<br />
hugs, {{{2}}}</small>
You type You get
{{Thankyou|all your hard work|Joe}}

Modèle:Thankyou

with named parameters
 
'''A little thank you...'''<br />
<small>for {{{reason}}}.<br />
hugs, {{{signature}}}</small>
You type You get
{{Thankyou
|reason=all your hard work
|signature=Joe}}

Modèle:Thankyou


You can define parameters in templates either numbered as {{{1}}} or named {{{param}}}. Please note that there are a set of three curly braces ({{{ and }}}) around each parameter. This is different than normal template name usage.

Example: You want a little thank you note you can put on the talk page of other users. It will contain a reason and your signature. You could create Modèle:Thankyou to enter your text, as in the example in the table.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a pipe char (|): {{Thankyou|all your hard work|Joe}}. For named parameters use "name=value" pairs separated by a pipe char: {{Thankyou|reason=all your hard work|signature=Joe}}. The advantage of using named parameters in your template is that they are flexible in order. It also makes the template easier to understand if you have many parameters. If you want to change the order of numbered parameters, you have to mention them explicitly: {{Thankyou|2=Joe|1=all your hard work}}.

You can also provide default values for parameters, i.e. values that are going to be used if no value is provided for a parameter. For example, {{{reason|all your hard work}}} would result in "all your hard work" if no value was provided for the parameter reason.

Control template inclusion[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

You can control template inclusion by the use of <noinclude> and <includeonly> tags.

Anything between <noinclude> and </noinclude> will be processed and displayed only when the template's page is being viewed directly.

Possible applications are:

  • Categorising templates
  • Interlanguage links to similar templates in other languages
  • Explanatory text about how to use the template

The converse is <includeonly>. Text between <includeonly> and </includeonly> will be processed and displayed only when the page is being included. The obvious application is to add all pages containing a given template to a catégorie, without putting the template itself into that category.


Documentation[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Documentation for users, together with the template's categories are normally placed after the template code, inside "noinclude" tags. It is normally necessary to put the opening "noinclude" tag immediately after the end of the code, with no intervening spaces or newlines, to avoid transcluding unwanted whitespace.

In the case of complex templates, the documentation (together with categories and wikilinks) is often kept on a separate subpage of the template page (named "Template:XXX/doc"). This also applies to many protected templates (to allow the information to be edited by non-administrators). This is achieved by placing the {{Documentation}} template after the main template code (within "noinclude" tags). If the "/doc" subpage does not exist, a link will then appear enabling it to be created.

Organizing templates[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

For templates to be effective, users need to find them and be able to use them. A simple technique is to include an example on the template page. For example:

<noinclude>
== Usage ==
Allows to establish a link to a subject:
{{NameOfTemplate|Term1+Term2+Term3}}
</noinclude>

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to create a similar page.

Copying from one wiki to another[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates:

If you have import rights on the new wiki[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

  1. Go to Spécial:Export on the original wiki. Enter the name of the template in the big text box, check "Include templates" and click Export. This will download a .xml file.
  2. Go to Spécial:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.
  3. Look for CSS classes (like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy them to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki.
  4. If the template uses ParserFunctions, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

  1. Copy the template text to the new wiki; link to the original page in the edit summary for attribution.
  2. Edit the template on the new wiki, and look through the list of templates at the bottom. The ones in red will also need to be copied from the original wiki to the new wiki. You may have to repeat this process multiple times before all dependency templates have been recognized and copied.
  3. Look for CSS classes (like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy them to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki.
  4. If the template uses ParserFunctions, you must install the ParserFunctions extension.

See also[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

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