The total length of the river is 37.0 miles (59.5 km) from the junction of the Town and Matfield Rivers in Bridgewater to the mouth of the Quequechan River in Fall River. The Taunton River is one of the flattest rivers in New England, dropping only about twenty feet (6 m) in elevation over its length. The river is tidal as far north as Taunton.
The Taunton is rich in history. The area served as a vital waterway for Native American settlements as well as Colonial settlements.
There are historic sites of Native American trails, river crossings, settlements, remains of colonial grist mills, ship building yards, industrial iron works, as well as paper and textile mills found all along the Taunton River.