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'''New Sweden.''' The first permanent European settlers in Pennsylvania were the Swedes and Finns who, starting in 1638, settled between present-day Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia, and small settlements in West New Jersey.<ref>"New Sweden" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Sweden (accessed 7 November 2008).</ref><ref>Amandus Johnson, "[http://sites.rootsweb.com/~nycoloni/nswamap.html Detailed Map of New Sweden 1638-1655]" in Amandus Johnson's book ''The Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1664'' (Philadelphia: Swedish Colonial Society, 1915), 392.</ref> For more details see the [[New Sweden|New Sweden]] wiki article.
'''New Netherland.''' The Dutch built a trade center blockhouse "at the Schuylkill" (now Philadelphia) in 1633 (earlier than the Swedish) but abandoned it in about 1643.<ref>Johnson, Detailed Map. This blockhouse is mentioned in Johnson's legend, but not displayed on his map, probably because it was replaced by a Swedish fort.</ref><ref>Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=BnY9MEaOCLEC History of New Netherland, 2nd ed].'' (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1855; digitized by Google, 2006), 2: 79. "The Swedes had already destroyed the trading-house, which the former [Dutch] had built at Schuylkill, and built a fort in its place."</ref> From 1648 to 1651 the Dutch built and garrisoned Fort Beversrede ("beaver road") in what is now Philadelphia. In order to intercept Minqua Indian fur traders coming down the Schuylkill River, and stifle competition, the Swedish built a blockhouse between the river and fort and only 12 feet in front of the palisade gates of Beversrede.<ref>Johnson, Detailed Map.</ref><ref>Philip S. Klein, and Ari Hoogenboom, ''[http://bookswww.google.com/books/edition/History_of_Pennsylvania/AB24rFZOmzcC?idhl=en&gbpv=1&dq=AB24rFZOmzcCA history+of+pennsylvania&printsec=frontcover History of Pennsylvania],'' 2nd ed. ] (University Park, Penn.: Penn State Press, 1980; digitized by Google), 11. "Stuyvesant in the spring of 1648 sent an expedition to build a fort on the Schuylkill further inland than any of the Swedish posts. This he called Fort Beversreede — 'beaver road' — for its purpose was to be the first point of contact with the Minqua traders. But before the summer had passed, Printz built a Swedish fort, 'right in front of our Fort Beversreede,' wrote an indignant Dutchman. This building stood between the water's edge and the Dutch blockhouse, its back wall standing just twelve feet from the palisade gate of Fort Beversreede. The Indians thus found Swedes at the anchoring place, and could not even see the Dutch post from the water."</ref><ref>Peter Stebbins Craig, "Chronology of Colonial Swedes on the Delaware 1638-1712" in The Swedish Colonial Society [Internet site] at http://www.colonialswedes.org/History/Chronology.html (accessed 10 November 2008). Originally published in ''Swedish Colonial News'', vol. 2, number 5 (Fall 2001). "[1648] Dutch build Fort Beversreede on east side of Schuylkill, but Swedes thwart Dutch attempts to build dwellings in area."</ref><ref>John Thomas Scharf, and Thompson Westcott, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=BHkCAAAAIAAJ History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884, vol. 2]'' (Philadelphia: L.H. Everets, 1884; digitized by Google, 2006), 1024. "The Dutch Fort Beversrede was built immediately opposite Minquas, or Mingo, or Eagle's Nest Creek, to command the trade in furs (skins) brought that way by the savages."</ref> When the Dutch built another fort in present-day New Castle, Delaware the Swedes captured it without a fight in 1654.<ref>Johnson, Detailed Map.</ref><ref>"Fort Casimir" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Casimir (accessed 7 November 2008).</ref><ref>Klein and Hoogenboom.</ref> But the Dutch returned in 1655 and took possession of all New Sweden. For more details see the [[New Netherland|New Netherland]] wiki article.
'''British Empire.''' In 1642 Englishmen from New Haven, Connecticut built a blockhouse at Province Island (now Philadelphia Airport) but were promptly driven out by the Dutch and Swedish. In 1664 as part of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the British forced New Netherland into submission. By 1670 the English, Irish, and Welsh predominated in the area. They settled mostly in Philadelphia and the eastern counties.<ref>Wayland Fuller Dunaway, "The English Settlers in Colonial Pennsylvania," ''The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,'' Vol. 52, No. 4 (Oct. 1928):317-341. For free online access, see [http://www.werelate.org/wiki/Source:Historical_Society_of_Pennsylvania._Pennsylvania_Magazine_of_History_and_Biography WeRelate].</ref>
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