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History[edit | edit source]
During the Early Medieval period, three Serb principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty.
The independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, and by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003.
On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year.
Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners.
Timeline[edit | edit source]
1455 - 1496 The Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans
1455 - During the reign of Crnojevićs, Zeta became known under its current name of Montenegro
1496 - 1878 Large portions of Montenegro fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire
1852 - 1910 The Principality of Montenegro existed until it was then proclaimed a kingdom by Nikola I, who then became king
1916 - 1918 Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary
1929 - 1941 The Zeta Banate was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. This province consisted of all of the present-day Montenegro
1941 - The first armed uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened in Montenegro
1943 - 1944 Partisans managed to take hold of most of Montenegro for a brief time, but Montenegro was soon occupied by German forces and fierce fighting continued during late 1943 and entire 1944
1944 - Montenegro was liberated by the Partisans
1944 -1944 Montenegro became one of the six constituent republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution in 1974
2006 - The Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro