Chinese Emigration and Immigration
|Chinese Wiki Topics|
|Local Research Resources|
- 1 Online Resources
- 2 U.S. Citizenship and and Immigration Services Genealogy Program
- 3 Finding the Town of Origin in China
- 4 China Emigration and Immigration
- 5 Chinese Americans
- 6 Emigration from China
- 7 Records of Emigrants in Their Destination Nations
- 8 For Further Reading
- 9 References
Online Resources[edit | edit source]
- 1857-1862 France National Overseas Archives, China The death registers of French hospitals established in China in Macao, Hong Kong and Shanghai
- 1870-1945 Auswandererkartei von Rußlanddeutschen nach China und Nordamerika : 1870-1945 Index cards, arranged alphabetically by surname, for German-speaking emigrants from Russia to China, North America, Argentina, elsewhere. Includes birthplaces and dates for both spouses and children, date of emigration and destination, place and date of marriage, children's names and documentary references.
- 1878-1960 UK and Ireland, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878-1960, at Ancestry.com, index and images. ($)
- 1883-1923 U.S., Chinese Immigration Case Files, 1883-1923 at Ancestry ($); index and images
- 1890-1960 Passenger Lists Leaving UK 1890-1960 at FindMyPast; index & images ($)
- 1892-1924 New York Passenger Arrival Lists (Ellis Island), 1892-1924 Search results for China
- 1946-1971 Free Access: Africa, Asia and Europe, Passenger Lists of Displaced Persons, 1946-1971 Ancestry, free. Index and images. Passenger lists of immigrants leaving Germany and other European ports and airports between 1946-1971. The majority of the immigrants listed in this collection are displaced persons - Holocaust survivors, former concentration camp inmates and Nazi forced laborers, as well as refugees from Central and Eastern European countries and some non-European countries.
- Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild Choose a volume and then choose your country under "Listed by Port of Departure" or "Listed by Port of Arrival".
California[edit | edit source]
- Angel Island Immigration Station Search Engine
- 1882-1888 United States, California, San Francisco, Records of Chinese Laborers Returning to the US, 1882-1888 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; index and images
- 1882-1947 California, San Francisco Chinese passenger lists, 1882-1947 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; index and images
- 1882-1888 San Francisco, California, Registers of Chinese Laborers Returning to the U.S., 1882-1888 at Ancestry ($); index and images
- 1883-1924 California, San Francisco, Register of Chinese Immigrant Court Cases and Foreign Seamen Tax Cards, 1883-1924 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; index and images
- 1884-1940 California, Chinese Arrival Case Files Index, 1884-1950 at Ancestry ($); index
- 1893-1943 California, Chinese Partnerships and Departures from San Francisco, 1893-1943 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; index and images
- 1903-1944 California, Index to Chinese Exclusion Case Files, 1903-1944 at Ancestry ($); index
- 1903-1947 San Francisco, California, Chinese Passenger Arrivals and Disposition, 1903-1947 at Ancestry ($); index and images
- 1905-1923 California, San Diego, Chinese Passenger and Crew Lists, 1905-1923 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; index and images
Hawaii[edit | edit source]
- 1888-1950 Registers, 1888-1898, Hawaii. Department of Foreign Affairs. Chinese Bureau Register of Hawaiian-born children of Chinese parents 1893-1898 (includes applications for certificates, nos. 1251-1300 1898). item 1 Register of naturalized Chinese leaving for China, 1893-1898 item 2 Permits for Chinese merchants and travellers, 1888-1894 item 3 Register of special residence bonds of merchants and travellers, 1892-1898 item 4 Register of special bonds, 1894-1895 item 5 Register of Chinese minors, with index, 1891-1898 item 6
- 1895-1989 Hawaii, Certificates of Identification for Chinese Arrivals, 1895-1898 at Ancestry ($); index and images
- 1900-1952 Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S., Index to Passengers Arriving, 1900-1952 at Ancestry ($); index and images.
- 1903-1944 Hawaii, Index to Chinese Exclusion Case Files, 1903-1944 at Ancestry ($); index
New York[edit | edit source]
- 1898-1943 New York, Index to Chinese Exclusion Case Files, 1898-1943 at Ancestry ($); index
North Dakota and Washington[edit | edit source]
- 1903-1944 North Dakota and Washington, Chinese Passenger Arrivals and Disposition, 1903-1944 at Ancestry ($); index and images
Oregon[edit | edit source]
- 1882-1903 Portland, Oregon, Chinese Immigrant Landing Records and Applications for Admission, 1882-1903 at Ancestry ($); index and images
Pennsylvania[edit | edit source]
- 1900-1923 Pennsylvania, Philadelphia Case Files of Chinese Immigrants, 1900-1923 at FamilySearch - How to Use this Collection; images only
Canada[edit | edit source]
- 1906-1912, 1929-1941 Vancouver, British Columbia, Manifests of Chinese Arrivals, 1906-1912, 1929-1941 at Ancestry ($); index and images
- 1885-1949 Immigrants from China, 1885-1949, index. Library and Archives Canada.
United Kingdom[edit | edit source]
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Births and Baptisms, China, index and images, ($)
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Banns and Marriages, China, index and images, ($)
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Deaths and Burials, index and images, ($)
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Births and Baptisms, Hong Kong , index and images, ($)
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Banns and Marriages, Hong Kong , index and images, ($)
- British Armed Forces and Overseas Deaths and Burials, index and images, ($)
U.S. Citizenship and and Immigration Services Genealogy Program[edit | edit source]
The USCIS Genealogy Program is a fee-for-service program that provides researchers with timely access to historical immigration and naturalization records of deceased immigrants. If the immigrant was born less than 100 years ago, you will also need to provide proof of his/her death.
Immigration Records Available[edit | edit source]
- A-Files: Immigrant Files, (A-Files) are the individual alien case files, which became the official file for all immigration records created or consolidated since April 1, 1944.
- Alien Registration Forms (AR-2s): Alien Registration Forms (Form AR-2) are copies of approximately 5.5 million Alien Registration Forms completed by all aliens age 14 and older, residing in or entering the United States between August 1, 1940 and March 31, 1944.
- Registry Files: Registry Files are records, which document the creation of immigrant arrival records for persons who entered the United States prior to July 1, 1924, and for whom no arrival record could later be found.
- Visa Files: Visa Files are original arrival records of immigrants admitted for permanent residence under provisions of the Immigration Act of 1924.
Requesting a Record[edit | edit source]
- Web Request Page allows you to request a records, pay fees, and upload supporting documents.
- Record Requests Frequently Asked Questions
Finding the Town of Origin in China[edit | edit source]
If you are using emigration/immigration records to find the name of your ancestors' town in China, see China Finding Town of Origin for additional research strategies.
China Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]
"Emigration" means moving out of a country. "Immigration" means moving into a country.
Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigrating) or arriving (immigrating) in the country. These sources may be passenger lists, permissions to emigrate, or records of passports issued. The information in these records may include the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, destinations, and places of origin or birthplaces. Sometimes they also show family groups.
Chinese Americans[edit | edit source]
- The 1849 California Gold Rushdrew the first significant number of laborers from China who mined for gold and performed menial labor.
- There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast.
- Chinese workers came in order to send money back to China to support their families there. At the same time, they also had to repay loans to the Chinese merchants who paid their passage to North America.
- Nearly all of the early immigrants were young males from six districts in Guangdong Province. The Guangdong province experienced extreme floods, famine, mass political unrest in the mid-nineteenth century.
- These Chinese immigrants were predominantly men. By 1900 only 4,522 of the 89,837 Chinese migrants that lived in the U.S. were women. The lack of women migrants was largely due to the passage of U.S. anti-immigration laws.
- Upon arrival to the U.S. Chinese men and women were separated from each other as they awaited hearings on their immigration status, which often took weeks. Ninety percent of the Chinese women who immigrated to the US between 1898 and 1908 did so to join their husband or father who already resided in the U.S.
- In the 1850s, Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the U.S. west. The Central Pacific Railroad recruited large labor gangs, many on five-year contracts, to build its portion of the Transcontinental Railroad.
- As Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right.
- The Chinese population rose from 2,716 in 1851 to 63,000 by 1871. In the decade 1861–70, 64,301 were recorded as arriving, followed by 123,201 in 1871–80 and 61,711 in 1881–1890.
- 77% were located in California, with the rest scattered across the West, the South, and New England.
- As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the U.S. economy. This finally resulted in legislation that aimed to limit future immigration through the Chinese Exclusion Act.
- From the 1850s through the 1870s, the California state government passed a series of measures aimed at Chinese residents, ranging from requiring special licenses for Chinese businesses or workers to preventing naturalization.
- In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which suspended the immigration of Chinese laborers (skilled or unskilled) and renewed the Act in 1892, 1902, and then indefinitely. The Chinese Exclusion Acts were not repealed until 1943.
- The states with the largest estimated Chinese American populations, according to both the 2010 Census, were California (1,253,100; 3.4%), New York (577,000; 3.0%), Texas (157,000; 0.6%), New Jersey (134,500; 1.5%), Massachusetts (123,000; 1.9%), Illinois (104,200; 0.8%), Washington (94,200; 1.4%), Pennsylvania (85,000; 0.7%), Maryland (69,400; 1.2%), Virginia (59,800; 0.7%), and Ohio (51,033; 0.5%). The state of Hawaii has the highest concentration of Chinese Americans at 4.0%, or 55,000 people. 
Emigration from China[edit | edit source]
- Chinese in the Chinese diaspora number over 50 million worldwide, with other estimates range up to 100 million total of Chinese descent.
- The largest (at least 1 million ethnic Chinese each) overseas communities are in Asia: Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar (in descending order of ethnic Chinese population size) have .
- Three countries outside Asia, have populations over 1 million in size:
- The United States (esp. States of California, Hawaii, New York and Washington State),
- Canada (esp. urban areas of Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver)
- Australia (esp. cities of Sydney, Melbourne)
- Other sizable communities (over 100,000) may be found in Japan, Cambodia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand and South Africa.
Records of Emigrants in Their Destination Nations[edit | edit source]
|One option is to look for records about the ancestor in the country of destination, the country they immigrated into. See links to immigration records for major destination countries below.|
For Further Reading[edit | edit source]
There are additional sources listed in the FamilySearch Catalog:
References[edit | edit source]
- "Genealogy", at USCIS, https://www.uscis.gov/records/genealogy, accessed 26 March 2021.
- "Chinese Americans," in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_Americans, acessed 2 June 2021.
- "List of diasporas", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_diasporas#C, accessed 3 July 2021.