Difference between revisions of "Argentina Emigration and Immigration"

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| link5=[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration|Emigration and Immigration]]
 
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==How to Find the Records==
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===Online Records===
 
===Online Records===
*'''1822-1889''' [https://immigrantships.net/irish_arg/irish_arg1822_29.html Irish to Argentina (1822-1889)]
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*[https://cemla.com/ CEMLA Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos] Database of immigrant arrivals in Argentina.
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*[http://www.ancestrositalianos.com/inmigracion/ Ancestros Argentineos] Information on Argentine immigration in Argentina.
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*[http://www.apellidositalianos.com.ar/ Apellidos Argentineos] Databases and other information regarding Argentine immigrants in Argentina
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*[https://www.immigrantships.net/index.html Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild] Choose a volume and then choose Argentina under "Listed by Port of Departure" or "Listed by Port of Arrival".
 +
*'''1509-1599''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/349326?availability=Family%20History%20Library Catálogo de pasajeros a Indias durante los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII] Lists of passengers from Spain to the New World during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries
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*'''1509-1701''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/20763?availability=Family%20History%20Library Pasajeros a Indias : libros de asientos] Archivo General de Indias. Commerce Section. Lists of passengers to the New World.
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*'''1623-1816''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/651485?availability=Family%20History%20Library Padrones y relación de extranjeros e indios, 1623-1816]
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*'''19th Century''' [http://www.entradadepasajeros.com.ar/ Entrada de Pasajeros a Argentina (Passenger entry to Argentina, XIX century)]
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*'''1817-1821''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/651495?availability=Family%20History%20Library Pasaportes, 1817-1821] Passports issued to persons leaving through the Port of Buenos Aires for destinations within Argentina and in other parts of the world.
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*'''1821-1871''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/651519?availability=Family%20History%20LibraryPassenger Entradas y salidas de pasajeros, 1821-1871], lists for disembarkation at and embarkation from the Port of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Includes some passports.
 
*'''1882-1920''' [https://ancestrositalianos.com/barcos-inmigrantes/ Barcos de Agnelli] Passenger lists 1882-1920
 
*'''1882-1920''' [https://ancestrositalianos.com/barcos-inmigrantes/ Barcos de Agnelli] Passenger lists 1882-1920
 
*'''1882-1950''' [http://www.immigration-records.com.ar/argentina/a/immigration-records-1.html Immigration Records of Argentina], index
 
*'''1882-1950''' [http://www.immigration-records.com.ar/argentina/a/immigration-records-1.html Immigration Records of Argentina], index
*'''1822-1929''' [http://www.irlandeses.org/passenger.htm Irish Passengers to Argentina (1822-1929)]
 
 
*'''1882-1960''' [http://www.hebrewsurnames.com/ships Ships arrived to the Port of Buenos Aires between 1882 and 1960], index by ship. Click on the name of the ship to view the list of passengers. Not complete.
 
*'''1882-1960''' [http://www.hebrewsurnames.com/ships Ships arrived to the Port of Buenos Aires between 1882 and 1960], index by ship. Click on the name of the ship to view the list of passengers. Not complete.
*'''1890-1960''' [https://www.findmypast.com/search/results?sourcecategory=travel+%26+migration&sid=101&destinationcountry=argentina Passenger Lists Leaving UK 1890-1960] at FindMyPast; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
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*'''1883-1937''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/4114734?availability=Family%20History%20Library Argentina, Migration Records, 1883-1937] , images, Passenger lists and other migration records housed at the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
*'''1904-1914''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-30240/germany-bremen-passenger-departure-lists-1904-1914?s=252295941 Germany, Bremen Passenger Departure Lists, 1904-1914] at MyHeritage; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
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*'''1883-1937''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/2700611?availability=Family%20History%20Library Argentina, registros migratorios, 1882-1937] images,  Buenos Aires (Argentina). Departamento Documentos Escritos, Archivo General de la Nación (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
*'''1920-1939''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10924/germany-bremen-emigration-lists-1920-1939?s=1&formId=collection_10924:searchFormDef&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration&p=1&qarrival=Event+et.immigration+ep.Argentina+epmo.similar Germany, Bremen Emigration Lists, 1920-1939] at MyHeritge; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
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*'''1892-1924''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/record/results?q.anyPlace=Argentina&q.anyPlace.exact=on&f.collectionId=1368704&count=20&offset=0&m.defaultFacets=on&m.queryRequireDefault=on&m.facetNestCollectionInCategory=on New York Passenger Arrival Lists (Ellis Island), 1892-1924] Search results for Argentina
 
*'''1921-1939''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/595113?availability=Family%20History%20Library Reseñas de pasaportes de varios consulados, 1921-1939]; images only - includes those in Argentina
 
*'''1921-1939''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/595113?availability=Family%20History%20Library Reseñas de pasaportes de varios consulados, 1921-1939]; images only - includes those in Argentina
*'''19th Century''' [http://www.entradadepasajeros.com.ar/ Entrada de Pasajeros a Argentina (Passenger entry to Argentina, XIX century)]
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*[[United States Immigration Online Genealogy Records]]
*[http://www.ancestrositalianos.com/inmigracion/ Ancestros Italianos] Information on Italian immigration in Argentina.
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*[http://www.apellidositalianos.com.ar/ Apellidos Italianos] Databases and other information regarding Italian immigrants in Argentina
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====Cultural Groups====
 
*[http://www.argbrit.org/ British Settlers in Argentina and Uruguay]
 
*[http://www.argbrit.org/ British Settlers in Argentina and Uruguay]
*[https://cemla.com/ CEMLA Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos] Database of immigrant arrivals in Argentina.
 
 
*[http://www.genfrancesa.com/ Gen Francesa] Helps and links to databases for French immigrants to South America.
 
*[http://www.genfrancesa.com/ Gen Francesa] Helps and links to databases for French immigrants to South America.
*[https://www.immigrantships.net/index.html Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild] 20,000+ Passenger Manifests in 20 Volumes plus numerous other passengers listed in Special Projects.
 
 
*[http://www.irlandeses.org/settlers.htm Irish Settlers in Argentina]
 
*[http://www.irlandeses.org/settlers.htm Irish Settlers in Argentina]
*[http://www.altreitalie.it/Servizi/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici.kl The data banks on Italian emigrants to the United States, Argentina and Brazil (Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici: registri di sbarco delle navi giunte nei porti di New York, Buenos Aires e Vitoria, limitatamente ai passeggeri di nazionalità italiana.]
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/567747?availability=Family%20History%20Library The story of the Irish in Argentina], indexed
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/370930?availability=Family%20History%20Library Five thousand Welsh Patagonians]
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/651485?availability=Family%20History%20Library History and records of Welsh Nonconformist churches in Patagonia, 19th/20th century] Censuses and records of proceedings of the immigrants and Indian populations who lived in Buenos Aires and some of the old tax districts of the Viceroyalty of Rio de La Plata.
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*'''1822-1889''' [https://immigrantships.net/irish_arg/irish_arg1822_29.html Irish to Argentina (1822-1889)]
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*'''1822-1929''' [http://www.irlandeses.org/passenger.htm Irish Passengers to Argentina (1822-1929)]
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*'''1829-1902''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/487329?availability=Family%20History%20Library Various documents concerning emigration and other papers of the Council of State, 1829-1902] Various documents concerning emigration for the Swiss canton of Valais to South America, notably Argentina and Brazil.
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*'''1865''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimosa_(ship)#1865_settlers List of Welsh settlers who sailed to Argentina in 1865]
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*'''1870-1945''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/420683?availability=Family%20History%20Library Auswandererkartei von Rußlanddeutschen nach Argentinien, 1870-1945], images of index cards, arranged alphabetically by surname, for German-speaking emigrants from Russia to Argentina. Provides information on place of origin, state of allegiance, birth and death date and place, religion, date of emigration, destination abroad, profession, full name of spouse, birth and death date and place, place and date of marriage; names, birth places and dates of children, their residences and spouses' names. Information often incomplete.
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*'''1870-1945''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/420719?availability=Family%20History%20Library Auswandererkartei von Rußlanddeutschen nach China und Nordamerika : 1870-1945] Index cards, arranged alphabetically by surname, for German-speaking emigrants from Russia to China, North America, Argentina, elsewhere. Includes birthplaces and dates for both spouses and children, date of emigration and destination, place and date of marriage, children's names and documentary references.
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*'''1878-1960''' [https://www.ancestry.co.uk/search/collections/1518/ UK and Ireland, Incoming Passenger Lists, 1878-1960], at Ancestry.com, index and images. ($)
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*'''1890-1960''' [https://www.findmypast.com/search/results?sourcecategory=travel+%26+migration&sid=101&destinationcountry=argentina Passenger Lists Leaving UK 1890-1960] at FindMyPast; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
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*'''1904-1914''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-30240/germany-bremen-passenger-departure-lists-1904-1914?s=252295941 Germany, Bremen Passenger Departure Lists, 1904-1914] at MyHeritage; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
 +
*'''1920-1939''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10924/germany-bremen-emigration-lists-1920-1939?s=1&formId=collection_10924:searchFormDef&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration&p=1&qarrival=Event+et.immigration+ep.Argentina+epmo.similar Germany, Bremen Emigration Lists, 1920-1939] at MyHeritge; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
  
Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigration) or coming into (immigration) Argentina. These lists are usually found as passenger lists, permissions to emigrate, records of passports issued, or lists of prisoners deported. The information in these records may include the emigrants’ name, ages, occupations, destinations, and sometimes place of origin or birthplace.  
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===National Archives===
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*'''1883-1937''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/4114734?availability=Family%20History%20Library Argentina, Migration Records, 1883-1937] , images, Passenger lists and other migration records housed at the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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*'''1883-1937''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/2700611?availability=Family%20History%20Library Argentina, registros migratorios, 1882-1937] images,  Buenos Aires (Argentina). Departamento Documentos Escritos, Archivo General de la Nación (Buenos Aires, Argentina)  
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People desiring to leave Argentina were required to request permission from the government. These records are available for research in the National Archives of Argentina. Records of genealogical value at national archives include: protocols of scribes (including wills, powers, titles of land, etc.), probate courts, censuses, data and titles of lands, church records, civil records, court records, military records, '''emigration lists''', land records, colonial records, and more.<br><br>
  
These sources can be very valuable in helping you determine where in Argentina your ancestor settled or from what city he or she immigration from. In addition to their usefulness in determining where an emigrant lived in the country before leaving, these records can help in constructing family groups. If you don't find your ancestor, you may find emigration information on neighbors of your ancestor. People who lived near each other in Argentina or other countries often settled together in the country they emigrated to.  
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'''General Archive of the Nation''' (Archivo General de la Nación)<br> Av. Leandro N. Alem 246<br>C1003AAP Buenos Aires<br> Argentina<br>Telephone: 00 54 11) 4331-5531<br>
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E-mail: archivo@mininterior.gov.ar<br>
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*[https://www.argentina.gob.ar/interior/archivo-general/contacto Contact]<br>
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*[http://www.mininterior.gov.ar/archivo/archivo.php Website]<br>
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*[https://www.argentina.gob.ar/solicitar-copias-certificadas-del-ingreso-de-inmigrantes Request certified copies of immigrant income] The step by step to request digitized copies of the registry of entry of immigrants by sea.
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::This centre houses the '''Registro de Entrada de pasajeros al Puerto de Buenos Aires between 1821 and 1869'''. This entry register contains several details about immigrants, such as their name, surname, place of origin and the name of the ship. The archive includes the Censo Nacional de Población y Económico-Social. This census records the name, surnames, sex, age, nationality, profession, religion, marital status and number of children. After the 1895 National Census, details on economic and social activities were also included.
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:::The Administración Nacional de Seguridad Social, Expedientes de Jubilaciones y pensiones series (mid 19th century to 1956) can provide interesting information for Spanish applicants.
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:::The Contaduría Nacional series keeps passenger lists (1874-1916).
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:::The Consejo Nacional de Educación series contains the school censuses, also of interest for exploring school attendance of the children of Spanish immigrants.
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[http://cemla.com/buscador/ '''Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos - CEMLA''']
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:This is an online database where users can search for passengers and immigrants landing in the port of Buenos Aires between 1882-1932, 1938-1945, 1947, 1948, 1949 and 1950. The details provided are: Name, surname, birthplace (from 1923), marital status, age, profession, religion, port of departure, ship name and date of arrival.
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-----
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[http://www.migraciones.gov.ar/ '''Dirección Nacional de Migraciones''']
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:This houses the registration books of passenger arrivals by sea from 1881 to 1951. It also keeps the entry/departure books for riverboat passengers from 1907 to 1937.
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----
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[http://www.migraciones.gov.ar/accesible/?museo '''Museo Hotel de Inmigrantes:''']
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:Opened in 1911. It holds the same database as the CEMLA, concerning passengers entering through the Port of Buenos Aires. Users have the option of running a search by surname and date window. Information can be requested by e-mail, museodelainmigración@migraciones.gov.ar
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===Other Records of Departure===
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Other records that might have information on immigrants include:
  
Records were created when individuals emigrated from or immigrated to Argentina. Other records document an ancestor's arrival in his destination country. This section discusses:
+
*Permissions to emigrate.
 
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*Newspaper announcements.
*Finding the Emigrant's Town of Origin.
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*Probates of relatives who stayed.
*Immigration into Argentina.
+
*Church records (annotations).
*Emigration From Argentina
+
*Police Lists/ Registrations.
*Records of Argentinian emigrants in their destination countries.
 
 
 
Unfortunately, there are few emigration records from Argentina at the Family History Library. There are some helpful records of Argentinian immigrants into other countries.
 
 
 
===Finding the Emigrant's Town of Origin===
 
 
 
Once you have traced your family back to your immigrant ancestor, you must determine the city or town the ancestor was from. There are several sources that may give your ancestor's place of origin. You may be able to learn the town your ancestor came from by talking to older family members. Members of your family or a library may have documents that name the city or town, such as:
 
 
 
*Birth, marriage, and death certificates.
 
*Obituaries.
 
*Journals.
 
*Photographs.
 
*Letters.
 
*Family Bible.
 
*Church certificates/records.
 
*Naturalization applications and petitions.
 
*Passenger lists.
 
 
*Passports.
 
*Passports.
*Family heirlooms.
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*Court Records.
  
Sometimes it is possible to guess where an immigrant originated through [[Surname Distribution Maps|surname distribution maps]].  
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==Finding the Town of Origin in Argentina==
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If you are using emigration/immigration records to find the name of your ancestors' town in Argentina, see [[Argentina Finding Town of Origin|'''Argentina Finding Town of Origin''']] for additional research strategies.
  
Additional information about finding the origins of immigrant ancestors is given in [[Tracing Immigrant Origins]].  
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==Argentina Emigration and Immigration==
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<span style="color:DarkViolet">'''"Emigration"''' means moving out of a country. '''"Immigration"''' means moving into a country. (See [[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Immigration into Argentina|'''Immigration into Argentina.''']]) </span><br>
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Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigrating) or arriving (immigrating) in the country. These sources may be passenger lists, permissions to emigrate, or records of passports issued. The information in these records may include the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, destinations, and places of origin or birthplaces. Sometimes they also show family groups.
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[[Category:Emigration and Immigration Records]]
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[[Category:Emigration and Immigration Records]]
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==Immigration into Argentina==
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{|
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|-
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|[[File:Dark thin font green pin Version 4.png|150px]]
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|<span style="color:DarkViolet">'''After this general history, you will find specific record links and background information for the major immigrant groups, organized by country:'''</span>
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|}
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{| style="width:100%; vertical-align:top;"
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|-
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|
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<ul class="column-spacing-fullscreen" style="padding-right:5px;">
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    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#French Argentinians|French Immigrants]]</li>
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    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#German Argentinians|German Immigrants]]</li>
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    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Irish Argentinians|Irish Immigrants]]</li>
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    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Italian Argentinians|Italian Immigrants]]</li>
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    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Spanish Argentinians|Spanish Immigrants]]</li>
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 +
   
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</ul>
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|}
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<br>
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*<span style="color:DarkViolet">'''See [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_of_Argentina Ethnic groups of Argentina] in Wikipedia, a more thorough list of smaller immigrant groups from many other countries.'''</span>
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-------
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<br>
  
===Immigration into Argentina===
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*'''Argentina is considered a country of immigrants'''. Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or melting pot).
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*In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the '''pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves.'''
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*Between 1857 and 1950, Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States. *However, immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca and La Rioja (North West region).
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*Most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955), with a great majority coming from European countries, particularly '''Italy and Spain'''.
 +
*Argentina is home to a significant '''Arab population'''; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of '''Syrian and Lebanese origin. As in the United States, they are considered white. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians belonging to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches'''.
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*The Asian population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of '''Chinese''' and '''Korean''' descent, although an older '''Japanese''' community originating from the early 20th century still exists.[282]
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*From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from '''Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru''', with smaller numbers from the '''Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania'''.<ref>"Argentina: Ethnography", in Wkikpedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina#Ethnography, accessed 10 May 2021.</ref>
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===History===
 +
*After independence was won, the government encouraged immigration. Free land, tools and animals were given to these new colonists if they would work on the land for five years.
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*In 1824, the Commission of Immigration began advertising to attract European immigrants to create new agriculture communities in the '''vast open lands outside the great Buenos Aires'''. One of the first groups sponsored came from the '''British Isles''' in Feb 1825, departing from '''Glasgow and Liverpool'''.  Some of the first '''Irish''' settled in these '''outskirts Buenos Aires and south of Santa Fe'''.
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*Starting around 1853, the project to colonize took force. Immigrants with contracts settled in the provinces of '''Santa Fe, Chaco, and Entre Rios'''. In 1857, these contracts brought families from '''Switzerland, the Piedmont area in Argentina, and the Haute–Savoie and Savoie departments in France. Russians and Germans also began coming at this time.'''
 +
*Until 1876, '''Santa Fe and Entre Rios''' were at the head of the new colonization movement.
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*After this wave of contracted immigrants, other '''independent immigrants''' came.
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*By 1875, 68,277 new immigrants had entered Argentina. From 1870–1890, a million and half more came. In the latter part of this period, hundreds of '''Russian Jewish Refugees''' came and settled the province of '''Entre Rios'''.
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*The '''Welsh''' came and settled the southern zone of the country.
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*The latest of the new arrivals were '''Koreans, Chinese, Taiwanese, and the Africans.'''
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*'''Most immigrants to Argentina arrived at the port of Buenos Aires''' or crossed the '''Uruguay border''' from Montevideo.
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----------------
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===French Argentinians===
 +
====French Online Records====
 +
*[http://www.genfrancesa.com/ Gen Francesa] Helps and links to databases for French immigrants to South America.
 +
*[[France Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
  
After independence was won and during the early formative years of the government, the government passed laws encouraging the immigration of foreigners who would be willing to come and work the land and develop an agricultural industry in the country. Free land, tools and animals were given to these new colonies if they would work on the land for five years.  
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====French Background====
 +
*French Argentines form one of the largest ancestry groups after Italian Argentines and Spanish Argentines.
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*Between 1857 and 1946, 261,020 French people immigrated to Argentina.
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*Besides immigration from continental France, Argentina also received, as early as the 1840s, immigrants with French background from neighboring countries, notably Uruguay.
 +
*In 2006, it was estimated that around 6 million Argentines had some degree of French ancestry, up to 17% of the total population.[4]
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*During the first half of the 19th century, most French immigrants to the New World settled in the United States and in Uruguay. 13,922 Frenchmen, most of them from the '''Basque Country and Béarn''', left for '''Uruguay''' between 1833 and 1842.
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*In 1852, Argentina overtook Uruguay and became the main pole of attraction for French immigrants in Latin America.
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*From the second half of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, Argentina received the second largest group of French immigrants worldwide, second only to the United States. Between 1857 and 1946 Argentina received 239,503 French immigrants - out of which 105,537 permanently settled in the country.
 +
*French immigration to Argentina can be divided in three main periods, as follows:
 +
:*France was the third source of immigration to Argentina before 1890, constituting over 10% of immigrants, only surpassed by Italians and Spaniards. During the first period (1852–1890), French immigration was similar, in numbers and in features, to that of Italians and Spaniards. It belonged to a larger movement of emigration of '''Basque people, from both sides of the Pyrenees'''.  
 +
:*from 1890 to 1914, immigration from France, although reduced, was still significant;
 +
:*lastly, after WWI, the flow of French immigrants was minimal and only grew again after WWII to finally stop in the 1950s.<ref>"French Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.</ref>
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-------------
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===German Argentinians===
 +
====German Online Records====
 +
*'''1870-1945''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/420683?availability=Family%20History%20Library Auswandererkartei von Rußlanddeutschen nach Argentinien, 1870-1945], images of index cards, arranged alphabetically by surname, for German-speaking emigrants from Russia to Argentina. Provides information on place of origin, state of allegiance, birth and death date and place, religion, date of emigration, destination abroad, profession, full name of spouse, birth and death date and place, place and date of marriage; names, birth places and dates of children, their residences and spouses' names. Information often incomplete.
 +
*'''1870-1945''' [https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/420719?availability=Family%20History%20Library Auswandererkartei von Rußlanddeutschen nach China und Nordamerika : 1870-1945] Index cards, arranged alphabetically by surname, for German-speaking emigrants from Russia to China, North America, Argentina, elsewhere. Includes birthplaces and dates for both spouses and children, date of emigration and destination, place and date of marriage, children's names and documentary references.
 +
*'''1904-1914''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-30240/germany-bremen-passenger-departure-lists-1904-1914?s=252295941 Germany, Bremen Passenger Departure Lists, 1904-1914] at MyHeritage; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
 +
*'''1920-1939''' [https://www.myheritage.com/research/collection-10924/germany-bremen-emigration-lists-1920-1939?s=1&formId=collection_10924:searchFormDef&formMode=1&useTranslation=1&exactSearch=&action=query&initialFormIds=immigration&p=1&qarrival=Event+et.immigration+ep.Argentina+epmo.similar Germany, Bremen Emigration Lists, 1920-1939] at MyHeritge; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
 +
*[[Germany Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
  
In 1824 the Commission of Immigration begin to function, advertising abroad in order to attract European immigrants to create new agriculture communities in the vast open lands outside the great Buenos Aires. One of the first groups sponsored came from the British Isles in Feb 1825 departing from Glasgow and Liverpool. This is how some of the first Irish came and populated the outskirts of the province of Buenos Aires and the south of Santa Fe. The Basque, specially the French Basque, followed in this early immigration.  
+
====German Background====
 +
German immigration to Argentina occurred during five main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945.
 +
*In the first period numbers were generally low; of note are the colonias alemanas, first founded in the province of Buenos Aires in 1827.
 +
*During the second period, Argentina experienced a boom in immigration due to massive economic expansion in the port of Buenos Aires and the wheat and beef producing Pampas.
 +
*During the third period, after a pause due to World War I, immigration to Argentina resumed and German speakers came in their largest numbers. This can be attributed to increased immigration restrictions in the United States and Brazil as well as the deteriorating conditions in post-World War I Europe. The two largest years of German immigration to Argentina were 1923 and 1924, with approximately 10,000 each year. Though found throughout Argentina, over 80% of these were located in '''Buenos Aires, Misiones, or Entre Ríos''' in 1933.
 +
*During the penultimate period, from 1933 to 1940, Argentina experienced another surge in German immigration. The majority were '''German Jews''' although other '''German opponents of Nazism''' also arrived. Half of the 45,000 German speakers who immigrated at this time settled in Buenos Aires. They comprised 28% of total immigration to the country, as mass migration to Argentina was slowing.
 +
*The final period of German immigration to Argentina occurred between 1946 and 1950 when President Juan Perón ordered the creation of a ratline for '''prominent Nazis, collaborators and other fascists from Europe'''. During this period, Argentine diplomats and intelligence officers, on Perón's instructions, vigorously encouraged these groups to make their home in Argentina.
 +
*The country received 12,000 immigrants from Germany between 1946 and 1952, a smaller number than in previous periods. <ref name="volga">"German Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.</ref>
 +
=====Volga Germans=====
 +
*Upon the invitation of Catherine the Great, 25,000 Germans immigrated to the Volga valley of Russia to establish 104 German villages from 1764 to 1767. A century after the first Germans had settled in the Volga region, Russia passed legislation that revoked many of the privileges promised to them by Catherine the Great.
 +
*Several nations in the Americas were attempting to attract settlers by offering inducements reminiscent of those of Catherine the Great. Soon after the military service bill became law, both Protestant and Catholic Volga Germans gathered and chose delegations to journey across the Atlantic to examine settlement conditions in countries like the United States, Argentina, Brazil, and Canada.
 +
*Many Catholic Volga Germans chose South America as their new homeland because the official religion in Brazil and Argentina was Roman Catholic. The ratio of Catholic to Protestant Volga Germans in South America was 7 to 1.
 +
*Under the guidance of Andreas Basgall, Volga Germans started to relocate to Argentina from Brazil in December 1877, and in January 1878 they founded the '''first Volga German colony of Hinojo''', in the province of Buenos Aires.
 +
*Some large groups of Volga Germans on ships destined for Brazil were diverted to Argentina. These people settled in '''Colonia General Alvear in the province of Entre Ríos'''. Additional Volga Germans, some from Brazil and others directly from Russia, arrived in Argentina over the next few years. Colonia General Alvear was for many years the main settlement of Volga Germans in Argentina. Nearly 90% of the first Volga Germans who arrived in Argentina settled there.
 +
*From both starting points of Colonia General Alvear and of Colonia Hinojo they spread in all directions. There are still fifteen villages in Entre Ríos populated by descendants of the original settlers, twelve of them are of Catholic origin, and the remaining three, Protestant. However, most Volga Germans live in small cities like Ramírez, Crespo, Urdinarrain, Galarza, and Maciá where they usually are the majority. Expansion from Colonia Hinojo went westwards comprising south of Buenos Aires and the province of La Pampa; from there they reached Córdoba and Chaco. Catholic settlers in La Pampa came from south of Buenos Aires and Protestants from Entre Ríos. The former founded Santa María and Santa Teresa, the latter Guatraché, San Martín, and Alpachiri.
 +
*Today the Volga-German population alone in Argentina is well over 2 million.<ref name="volga"/>
 +
--------
  
These were the early immigrants that were at the beginning of what would be the major immigration period for Argentina.
+
===Irish Argentinians===
 +
====Irish Online Records====
 +
*[http://www.irlandeses.org/settlers.htm Irish Settlers in Argentina]
 +
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/567747?availability=Family%20History%20Library The story of the Irish in Argentina], indexed
 +
*[http://www.argbrit.org/ British Settlers in Argentina and Uruguay]
 +
*'''1822-1889''' [https://immigrantships.net/irish_arg/irish_arg1822_29.html Irish to Argentina (1822-1889)]
 +
*'''1822-1929''' [http://www.irlandeses.org/passenger.htm Irish Passengers to Argentina (1822-1929)]
 +
*'''1890-1960''' [https://www.findmypast.com/search/results?sourcecategory=travel+%26+migration&sid=101&destinationcountry=argentina Passenger Lists Leaving UK 1890-1960] at FindMyPast; index & images ($); includes those with Destination of Argentina
 +
*[[Ireland Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
  
Starting around 1853 the project to colonize took force. The immigrants that had made contracts in Europe to gain land began to arrive, settling in colonies in the provinces of Santa Fe, Chaco, and Entre Rios. In 1857 these contracts brought families from Switzerland, the Piedmont area in Italy, and the Haute–Savoie and Savoie departments in France. Russians and Germans also began coming at this time.
+
====Irish Background====
 
+
*Irish emigrants from the '''Midlands, Wexford and many counties of Ireland''' arrived in Argentina mainly from 1830 to 1930, with the largest wave taking place in 1850–1870. The modern Irish-Argentine community is composed of some of their descendants, and the total number is estimated at 500,000–1,000,000.
Until 1876, when the laws of immigration were realigned, Santa Fe and Entre Rios were at the head of the new colonization movement. In reality most of these new colonies were brought under contract from Europe and the people stayed and began to make roots in their new soil and contribute to the development of the agriculture and industrial foundation of their new country. They worked the land, and gave of their harvest to the government as payment and as their contracts were fulfilled the land became their property.  
+
*Argentina is the home of the fifth largest Irish community in the world, the largest in a non-English speaking nation and the greatest in Latin America.
 
+
*Most of those who left Ireland arrived in Buenos Aires attracted by the possibility of better living conditions, as the economic, social and political conditions in Ireland at the time were quite poor, but the '''emigrants came from counties and social segments in which the economic conditions were not the worst (Westmeath, Longford, Offaly, Wexford)'''.
After this wave of contracted immigrants, other independent immigrants came. By 1875, 68,277 new immigrants had entered Argentina, the majority being Italians and Spaniards. From 1870–1890 a million and half more came. In the latter part of this period, hundreds of Russian Jewish Refugees came and settled in colonies in the province of Entre Rios. The Welsh came and settled the southern zone of the country.  
+
*Others, in turn, left after receiving favorable descriptions of the country from friends and family who had already arrived in Argentina.
 
+
*The real or perceived possibility to becoming landowners in the Río de la Plata region (Argentina and Uruguay) and consequently joining the South American landed gentry, was the most important factor attracting thousands of young men to the area. Others had arrived earlier as merchants, artisans and mercenaries.
By 1913 there were three million that had found new homes in Argentina. There has been a continuous flow of immigrants through the years. The latest of the new arrivals were Koreans, Chinese, Taiwanese, and the Africans.  
+
*For Irish immigrants, the new lands of the Southern Cone of South America brought further interest for immigration to purchase large land tracts for bargain prices, working first as labourers, then in "halves" or "thirds" in the sheep-farming business, and finally renting and purchasing land.<ref>"Irish Argentine", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Argentine, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 
+
---------
What is certain is that all who came have contributed to the soul of the modern Argentinian who has in him characteristics of all the cultural groups that now form Argentina.
+
===Italian Argentinians===
 
+
====Italian Online Sources====
Most immigrants to Argentina arrived at the port of Buenos Aires or crossed the border with Uruguay from Montevideo. There are Passenger lists for disembarkation at and embarkation from the Port of Buenos Aires. These include some passports:
+
*'''1882-1920''' [https://ancestrositalianos.com/barcos-agnelli/ Agnelli Ships - Records of the entry of Italian immigrants] Agnelli Boats is a registry of the entry of Italian immigrants organized by year and by ship.
 
+
*'''1882-1929''' [https://www.altreitalie.it/Servizi/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici.kl Centro Altreitalie] Three databases, available online, with the landing lists of Italians in Argentina, Brazil and the United States.
*''Entradas y Salidas de Pasajeros 1821 – 1871''(Arrivals and Departures of Passengers 1821–1871). Buenos Aires: Archivo General de la Nación, 1992. (FHL film 1840670–1840684.)
+
*[http://www.apellidositalianos.com.ar/ Apellidos Italianos] Databases and other information regarding Italian immigrants in Argentina
 
+
*[[Italy Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
The immigration records between 1870 and 1888 were lost. As the Centro de Estudio Migratorios (C.E.M.L.A.) has complete and computerized immigration records from 1888–1925. You may write to them for information. You can search their database [http://cemla.com here].
 
 
 
The Archivo General de la Nación has immigration and passport records since the early 1800s. You will need to write to them for that information. Good references at the Family History Library for more information on immigration and emigration into Argentina include:
 
  
*Panettieri, José. ''Inmigración en la Argentina''(Immigration in Argentina). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Macchi, 1970. (FHL book 982 W2i.)
+
====Italian Argentine Background====
*Margulis, Mario. ''Migración y marginalidad en la Sociedad Argentina'' (Migration in Argentina and its social implications). Buenos Aires: Paidos, 1970, 1975. (FHL book 982 W2m.)
+
*Italian settlements in Argentina, along with Spanish settlements, formed the backbone of today's Argentine society. Argentine culture has significant connections with Italian culture in terms of language, customs, and traditions.  
*Gori, Gastón. ''Inmigración y Colonización en la Argentina''(Immigration and colonization in Argentina). Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1964. (FHL book 982 W2g.)
+
*Italian is the largest ethnic origin of modern Argentines, after the Spanish immigration during the colonial population. It is estimated that up to 30 million Argentines have some degree of Italian ancestry (62.5% of the total population).
 +
*Italians began arriving in Argentina in large numbers from 1857 to 1940, totaling 44.9% of the entire postcolonial immigrant population, more than from any other country (including Spain, at 31.5%). In 1996, the population of Argentines of partial or full Italian descent numbered 15.8 million when Argentina’s population was approximately 34.5 million, meaning they represented 45.5% of the population. Today, the country has 30 million Argentines with some degree of Italian ancestry in a total population of 40 million.<ref>"Italian Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Argentines, accessed 17 April 2021.</ref>
 +
--------
 +
===Spanish Argentinians===
 +
====Spanish Online Records====
 +
*[[Spain Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
  
Some of those who emigrated from Europe emigrated through the port of Hamburg. The records of Hamburg have been microfilmed and are available in the collection of the Family History Library. These passenger lists and indexes are most fully described in [[Hamburg Passenger Lists]]. Note: the old Hamburg Passenger Lists Resource Guide has been incorporated into the article. Also see the microfiche instructions in&nbsp;{{FHL|943.515/H1 W2h copy 1|disp=Hamburg Passenger Lists}}.  
+
====Spanish Argentine Background====
 +
*Spanish settlement in Argentina took place first in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish Empire was the sole colonial power in the territories that became Argentina after the 1816 Argentine declaration of independence. Thus, before 1850, the vast majority of European settlers in Argentina were from Spain.
 +
*A substantial Spanish descended Criollo (Latin Americans who are of solely or of mostly Spanish descent) population gradually built up in the new cities, while some mixed with the indigenous populations (Mestizos), with the Black African-descended slave population (Mulattoes) or with other European immigrants.
 +
*Since a great portion of the immigrants to Argentina before the mid-19th century were of Spanish descent, and a significant part of the late-19th century/early-20th century immigrants to Argentina were Spaniards, the large majority of Argentines are at least partly of Spanish ancestry.
 +
*In the post-colonial period (1832-1950), there would be a further influx of Spanish immigrants to Argentina from all over Spain during the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, after the creation of the modern Argentine state. Between 1857 and 1960, 2.2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from '''Galicia, the Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, and Catalonia in northern Spain, while significantly smaller numbers of immigrants also arrived from Andalusia in southern Spain'''.
 +
*'''Galicians  make up 70% of the Spanish post-colonial immigrant population in Argentina'''. The city with the world's second largest number of Galician people is Buenos Aires, where immigration from Galicia was so profound that today all Spaniards, regardless of their origin within Spain, are referred to as gallegos (Galicians) in Argentina.
 +
*Roughly 10-15% of the Argentine population are descended from '''Basque people, both Spanish and French''', and are described as '''Basque Argentines'''. They gather in several Basque cultural centers in most of the large cities in the country. A common practice among Argentinians of Basque origin is to identify themselves "French-Basques". This is because of French culture being considered more "fashionable" than Spanish among the average Argentinian.<ref>"Spanish Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.</ref>
 +
====Welsh Argentinians====
 +
In 1865, a group of Wales immigrants settled in Patagonia. They founded a settlement that was named Y Wladfa.
 +
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimosa_(ship)#1865_settlers List of Settlers who sailed on the Mimosa in 1865]
 +
------
  
Germans to Argentina between 1850 and 1865 were extracted from the German newspaper "Hamburger Nachrichten" and listed in GENEALOGIE, Heft 4, 1974, page 118, call number 943 B2gf at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.
 
  
If you have family from any of the Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Norway or Finland) who emigrated to Argentina, there are church records available. Buenos Aires had a small population of Scandinavian immigrants. They primarily belonged to Norwegian sailing families. Church records have been microfilmed from 1888-1919, with some later records appearing on the Norwegian National Archives website. These records include, many times, places of birth in Norway. The church records can be seen at [http://www.arkivverket.no/URN:kb_read Skannede Kirkeboker]. &nbsp;(This website is available in English and Norwegian only, although, many of the records are written in Spanish.)
+
==Emigration==
 +
{|
 +
|-
 +
|[[File:Dark thin font green pin Version 4.png|150px]]
 +
|<span style="color:DarkViolet">One option is to look for records about the ancestor in the '''country of destination, the country they immigrated into'''. See links to immigration records for major destination countries below.</span>
 +
|}
 +
{| style="width:80%; vertical-align:top;"
 +
|-
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|
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<ul class="column-spacing-fullscreen" style="padding-right:5px;">
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Brazil|Brazil]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Canada|Canada]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#France|France]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Israel|Israel]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Spain|Spain]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#United States|United States]]</li>
 +
    <li>[[Argentina Emigration and Immigration#Uruguay|Uruguay]]</li>
 +
   
 +
</ul>
 +
|}
  
For help reading the Norwegian church records, please contact us through the community at the [https://community.familysearch.org/s/workgroup/Workgroup__c/Recent Nordic Community].
+
*People from Argentina known as Argentines whom live overseas in communities across the Americas (like '''Uruguay and Brazil until the 1990s'''), '''western Europe (esp. Spain, Italy, Germany, France and the U.K.)''' and elsewhere '''(i.e. Israel)''', mainly are political refugees from the '''military junta in the late 1970s and 1980s.'''
 +
*Some Argentines chose to leave their country during the troubled years of government turmoil in the 1970s and 1980s.
 +
*Emigrants from Argentina left records documenting their migration in the country they left as well as in the country they moved to.
 +
*Most Argentinian emigrants '''left through Buenos Aires''' or the major cities with international transportation.
 +
*There are records of departures including emigration lists, passport records, and passenger lists.
 +
*The information in these lists varies over time but usually includes the '''emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, and destinations. In addition, relationships and last residence or birthplace may be given'''.
  
===Emigration From Argentina===
+
==Records of Argentina Emigrants in Their Destination Nations==
 
+
===Argentinians in Brazil===
Some Argentines chose to leave their country during the troubled years of government turmoil in the 1970s and 1980s. Emigrants from Argentina left records documenting their migration in the country they left as well as in the country they moved to.  
+
====Brazil Online Records====
 
+
*[http://www.altreitalie.it/Servizi/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici.kl The data banks on Argentine emigrants to the United States, Argentina and Brazil (Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici: registri di sbarco delle navi giunte nei porti di New York, Buenos Aires e Vitoria, limitatamente ai passeggeri di nazionalità italiana.]
Most Argentinian emigrants left through Buenos Aires or the major cities with international transportation. There are records of departures including emigration lists, passport records, and passenger lists. The information in these lists varies over time but usually includes the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, and destinations. In addition, relationships and last residence or birthplace may be given. Passenger lists are available from the Dirección de Puertos (Administration of the Port) and for the air travel from the Dirección General de Aeronavegación (General Administration of Aviation) which comes under the Ministerio de Aeronáutica (Ministry of Aeronautics).
+
*[[Brazil Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 
 
===Other Records of Departure===
 
  
People desiring to leave Argentina were required to request permission from the government. These records are available for research in the National Archives of Argentina. Other records that might have information on immigrants include:  
+
====Brazil Background====
 +
*Most Argentines outside Argentina are people who have migrated from the middle and upper middle classes.  
 +
*The first wave of emigration occurred during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, with principally to '''Spain, USA, Mexico and Venezuela.
 +
*The last major wave of emigration occurred during the 2001 crisis, '''mainly to Europe, especially Spain''', although there was also an increase in emigration to neighboring countries, particularly Brazil, Chile and Paraguay.<ref>"Argentinian Brazilians", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Brazilians, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
*Permissions to emigrate.
+
===Argentinians in Canada===
*Newspaper announcements.
+
====Canada Online Records====
*Probates of relatives who stayed.
+
*[[Canada Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
*Church records (annotations).
+
====Canada Background====
*Police Lists/ Registrations.
+
*The Canadian Immigration Act of 1952 resulted in an increased number of skilled and educated Argentine immigrants to Canada. The majority were fleeing the economic decline and political turmoil following the Revolución Libertadora. An average of 400 Argentines immigrated to Canada annually from 1964 to 1972.  
*Passports.
+
*Beginning in 1973, increased instability, terrorism and high inflation in Argentina created another wave of immigration to Canada. The rate of immigration increased to more than 1000 persons annually during the mid-1970s. The influx lasted until 1983, coinciding with the progress of Argentine democracy.
*Court Records.
+
*The highest concentrations of Argentine Canadians are in Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec.<ref>"Argentine Canadians", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Canadians, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
===Records of Argentinian Emigrants in Their Destination Countries===
+
===Argentinians in France===
 +
====France Online Records====
 +
*[[France Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 +
====France Background====
 +
Argentinians in France in 2012 numbered 11,899 (or up to 15,000).<ref>"Immigration to France", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_France, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
Sometimes the best sources for information about your immigrant ancestor are found in the country he or she emigrated to. These may provide the town of origin in Argentina and other information.  
+
===Argentinians in Israel===
 +
====Israel Online Records====
 +
*[[Israel Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 +
====Israel Background====
 +
*Argentine Jewish immigration to Israel has been, and still is, the largest and most significant migratory flow from South America. This is because Argentina has one of the largest Jewish communities in the world. Because of this, many Jewish Argentines are able to make aliyah and become Israeli citizens through the Law of Return. The Argentine community in Israel is about 50,000 people, although some estimates put the figure at 70,000, making it one of the fastest growing groups in the country.
 +
*Since the establishment of the State of Israel there has been an Argentine Jewish migratory flow to Israel although this flow has fluctuated over time.
 +
*Argentina has maintained long and stable relations with Israel. The South American nation was always opened to immigrants, and Jews were no exception to this except for a brief period when Jewish immigration was banned. Despite this, thousand of Jews entered Argentina and made it their home.
 +
*It was not until the '''1976 Argentine coup d'état''' when a large number of Jews fled the country in search of safety.
 +
*The number of Argentine Jews emigrating to Israel greatly increased throughout the period of the Dirty War. Many of them settled permanently in Israel while others returned to Argentina after the fall of the junta.
 +
*Many Jewish Argentines choose Israel as an alternative to settle due to political and economic instability that has rocked Argentina in recent decades.
 +
*It was during the Argentine crisis of 2001 when Israel saw the largest number of olim from the South American country.
 +
*The 1992 attack on the Israeli embassy and the 1994 bombing of the Jewish Community Center in Buenos Aires also helped create an impetus for Jews to emigrate.
 +
*There is a significant number of non-Jewish Argentines, having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent, who choose Israel as their new home, either permanently or temporarily.<ref>"Argentines in Israel", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Jews_in_Israel, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
To learn about these records, use available handbooks, manuals, and FamilySearch Wiki articles for the country in which they arrived. For the United States use ''[[Tracing Immigrant Origins]].''  
+
===Argentinians in Spain===
 +
====Spain Online Records====
 +
*[[Spain Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 +
====Spain Background====
 +
*Between 1857 and 1940, more than 2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from '''Galicia, Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria in northern Spain, Catalonia in northeast Spain, and also from Andalusia in southern Spain.'''<ref name="ethno">"Ethnic groups of Argentina", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_of_Argentina, accessed 11 Mat 2021.</ref>
 +
*As a result of political, social and economic problems that hit the country in recent decades, many Argentines chose to emigrate, mainly to other countries in the Americas or '''countries where their parents and/or grandparents came from (mainly Spain and Italy)'''.
 +
*In 2018, 256,071 Argentines lived in Spain. 18,390 lived in '''Catalonia''', with 13,387 in '''Barcelona'''. 12,635 lived in '''Andalucia''', with 6,589 in '''Málaga'''. 10,526 lived in '''Valencia''', with 5,510 in '''Alicante'''. 9,706 lived in '''Madrid''', and 6,746 lived in the '''Balearic Islands.'''
 +
*The Argentines are the fourth most numerous Latin American community in Spain. <ref>"Argentines in Spain", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentines_in_Spain, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
 +
===Argentinians in the United States===
 +
====United States Online Records====
 +
*[http://www.altreitalie.it/Servizi/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici/Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici.kl The data banks on Argentine emigrants to the United States, Argentina and Brazil (Cerca_Le_Tue_Radici: registri di sbarco delle navi giunte nei porti di New York, Buenos Aires e Vitoria, limitatamente ai passeggeri di nazionalità italiana.]
 +
*[[United States Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 +
-----
  
 +
===Argentinians in Uruguay===
 +
====Uruguay Online Records====
 +
*[[Uruguay Emigration and Immigration]] – Wiki page with additional larger databases which also include Argentinians
 +
====Uruguay Background====
 +
*Many Argentine-born persons reside in Uruguay, for a number of reasons. Both countries share the same language, culture and ethnicity and their populations bear striking similarities. There is no need for special migration documents, and circulation is relatively easy. Uruguay is a small, quiet country, with wide beaches on the Atlantic Ocean, so many Argentines choose Uruguay as their usual holiday destination, some of them even as permanent residence. Argentine people come to Uruguay in search of a better quality of life.
 +
*The 2011 Uruguayan census revealed 26,782 people who declared Argentina as their country of birth.[6] In 2013, there were almost 6,000 Argentine citizens registered in the Uruguayan social security.<ref>"Argentines in Uruguay", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentines_in_Uruguay, accessed 11 May 2021.</ref>
 +
-----
  
 +
==For Further Reading==
 +
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_of_Argentina Ethnic groups of Argentina] in Wikipedia
 +
*{{FHL|346219|subject_id|disp=Argentina - Emigration and immigration}}
 +
*{{FHL|587948|subject_id|disp=Argentina - Emigration and immigration - Indexes}}
  
 +
==References==
 +
<references/>
 
[[es:Emigración e inmigración de Argentina]]
 
[[es:Emigración e inmigración de Argentina]]
  
 
[[Category:Argentina Emigration and Immigration]]  
 
[[Category:Argentina Emigration and Immigration]]  
 
[[Category:Argentina_Emigration_and_Immigration]]
 
[[Category:Argentina_Emigration_and_Immigration]]

Latest revision as of 16:30, 19 July 2021

Argentina Wiki Topics
Flag of Argentina.png
Beginning Research
Record Types
Argentina Background
Local Research Resources

How to Find the Records[edit | edit source]

Online Records[edit | edit source]

Cultural Groups[edit | edit source]

National Archives[edit | edit source]

People desiring to leave Argentina were required to request permission from the government. These records are available for research in the National Archives of Argentina. Records of genealogical value at national archives include: protocols of scribes (including wills, powers, titles of land, etc.), probate courts, censuses, data and titles of lands, church records, civil records, court records, military records, emigration lists, land records, colonial records, and more.

General Archive of the Nation (Archivo General de la Nación)
Av. Leandro N. Alem 246
C1003AAP Buenos Aires
Argentina
Telephone: 00 54 11) 4331-5531
E-mail: archivo@mininterior.gov.ar

This centre houses the Registro de Entrada de pasajeros al Puerto de Buenos Aires between 1821 and 1869. This entry register contains several details about immigrants, such as their name, surname, place of origin and the name of the ship. The archive includes the Censo Nacional de Población y Económico-Social. This census records the name, surnames, sex, age, nationality, profession, religion, marital status and number of children. After the 1895 National Census, details on economic and social activities were also included.
The Administración Nacional de Seguridad Social, Expedientes de Jubilaciones y pensiones series (mid 19th century to 1956) can provide interesting information for Spanish applicants.
The Contaduría Nacional series keeps passenger lists (1874-1916).
The Consejo Nacional de Educación series contains the school censuses, also of interest for exploring school attendance of the children of Spanish immigrants.

Centro de Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos - CEMLA

This is an online database where users can search for passengers and immigrants landing in the port of Buenos Aires between 1882-1932, 1938-1945, 1947, 1948, 1949 and 1950. The details provided are: Name, surname, birthplace (from 1923), marital status, age, profession, religion, port of departure, ship name and date of arrival.

Dirección Nacional de Migraciones

This houses the registration books of passenger arrivals by sea from 1881 to 1951. It also keeps the entry/departure books for riverboat passengers from 1907 to 1937.

Museo Hotel de Inmigrantes:

Opened in 1911. It holds the same database as the CEMLA, concerning passengers entering through the Port of Buenos Aires. Users have the option of running a search by surname and date window. Information can be requested by e-mail, museodelainmigración@migraciones.gov.ar

Other Records of Departure[edit | edit source]

Other records that might have information on immigrants include:

  • Permissions to emigrate.
  • Newspaper announcements.
  • Probates of relatives who stayed.
  • Church records (annotations).
  • Police Lists/ Registrations.
  • Passports.
  • Court Records.

Finding the Town of Origin in Argentina[edit | edit source]

If you are using emigration/immigration records to find the name of your ancestors' town in Argentina, see Argentina Finding Town of Origin for additional research strategies.

Argentina Emigration and Immigration[edit | edit source]

"Emigration" means moving out of a country. "Immigration" means moving into a country. (See Immigration into Argentina.)
Emigration and immigration sources list the names of people leaving (emigrating) or arriving (immigrating) in the country. These sources may be passenger lists, permissions to emigrate, or records of passports issued. The information in these records may include the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, destinations, and places of origin or birthplaces. Sometimes they also show family groups.

Immigration into Argentina[edit | edit source]

Dark thin font green pin Version 4.png After this general history, you will find specific record links and background information for the major immigrant groups, organized by country:





  • Argentina is considered a country of immigrants. Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or melting pot).
  • In colonial times, the ethnic composition of Argentina was the result of the interaction of the pre-Columbian indigenous population with a colonizing population of Spanish origin and with sub-Saharan African slaves.
  • Between 1857 and 1950, Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, at 6.6 million, second only to the United States. *However, immigration did not have the same impact in the whole country. According to the 1914 national census, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, including 50% of the people in the city of Buenos Aires, but foreigners were only 2% in the provinces of Catamarca and La Rioja (North West region).
  • Most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955), with a great majority coming from European countries, particularly Italy and Spain.
  • Argentina is home to a significant Arab population; including those with partial descent, Arab Argentines number 1.3 to 3.5 million, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin. As in the United States, they are considered white. The majority of Arab Argentines are Christians belonging to the Maronite Church, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches.
  • The Asian population in the country numbers around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community originating from the early 20th century still exists.[282]
  • From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from the Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania.[1]

History[edit | edit source]

  • After independence was won, the government encouraged immigration. Free land, tools and animals were given to these new colonists if they would work on the land for five years.
  • In 1824, the Commission of Immigration began advertising to attract European immigrants to create new agriculture communities in the vast open lands outside the great Buenos Aires. One of the first groups sponsored came from the British Isles in Feb 1825, departing from Glasgow and Liverpool. Some of the first Irish settled in these outskirts Buenos Aires and south of Santa Fe.
  • Starting around 1853, the project to colonize took force. Immigrants with contracts settled in the provinces of Santa Fe, Chaco, and Entre Rios. In 1857, these contracts brought families from Switzerland, the Piedmont area in Argentina, and the Haute–Savoie and Savoie departments in France. Russians and Germans also began coming at this time.
  • Until 1876, Santa Fe and Entre Rios were at the head of the new colonization movement.
  • After this wave of contracted immigrants, other independent immigrants came.
  • By 1875, 68,277 new immigrants had entered Argentina. From 1870–1890, a million and half more came. In the latter part of this period, hundreds of Russian Jewish Refugees came and settled the province of Entre Rios.
  • The Welsh came and settled the southern zone of the country.
  • The latest of the new arrivals were Koreans, Chinese, Taiwanese, and the Africans.
  • Most immigrants to Argentina arrived at the port of Buenos Aires or crossed the Uruguay border from Montevideo.

French Argentinians[edit | edit source]

French Online Records[edit | edit source]

French Background[edit | edit source]

  • French Argentines form one of the largest ancestry groups after Italian Argentines and Spanish Argentines.
  • Between 1857 and 1946, 261,020 French people immigrated to Argentina.
  • Besides immigration from continental France, Argentina also received, as early as the 1840s, immigrants with French background from neighboring countries, notably Uruguay.
  • In 2006, it was estimated that around 6 million Argentines had some degree of French ancestry, up to 17% of the total population.[4]
  • During the first half of the 19th century, most French immigrants to the New World settled in the United States and in Uruguay. 13,922 Frenchmen, most of them from the Basque Country and Béarn, left for Uruguay between 1833 and 1842.
  • In 1852, Argentina overtook Uruguay and became the main pole of attraction for French immigrants in Latin America.
  • From the second half of the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century, Argentina received the second largest group of French immigrants worldwide, second only to the United States. Between 1857 and 1946 Argentina received 239,503 French immigrants - out of which 105,537 permanently settled in the country.
  • French immigration to Argentina can be divided in three main periods, as follows:
  • France was the third source of immigration to Argentina before 1890, constituting over 10% of immigrants, only surpassed by Italians and Spaniards. During the first period (1852–1890), French immigration was similar, in numbers and in features, to that of Italians and Spaniards. It belonged to a larger movement of emigration of Basque people, from both sides of the Pyrenees.
  • from 1890 to 1914, immigration from France, although reduced, was still significant;
  • lastly, after WWI, the flow of French immigrants was minimal and only grew again after WWII to finally stop in the 1950s.[2]

German Argentinians[edit | edit source]

German Online Records[edit | edit source]

German Background[edit | edit source]

German immigration to Argentina occurred during five main time periods: pre–1870, 1870–1914, 1918–1933, 1933–1940 and post–1945.

  • In the first period numbers were generally low; of note are the colonias alemanas, first founded in the province of Buenos Aires in 1827.
  • During the second period, Argentina experienced a boom in immigration due to massive economic expansion in the port of Buenos Aires and the wheat and beef producing Pampas.
  • During the third period, after a pause due to World War I, immigration to Argentina resumed and German speakers came in their largest numbers. This can be attributed to increased immigration restrictions in the United States and Brazil as well as the deteriorating conditions in post-World War I Europe. The two largest years of German immigration to Argentina were 1923 and 1924, with approximately 10,000 each year. Though found throughout Argentina, over 80% of these were located in Buenos Aires, Misiones, or Entre Ríos in 1933.
  • During the penultimate period, from 1933 to 1940, Argentina experienced another surge in German immigration. The majority were German Jews although other German opponents of Nazism also arrived. Half of the 45,000 German speakers who immigrated at this time settled in Buenos Aires. They comprised 28% of total immigration to the country, as mass migration to Argentina was slowing.
  • The final period of German immigration to Argentina occurred between 1946 and 1950 when President Juan Perón ordered the creation of a ratline for prominent Nazis, collaborators and other fascists from Europe. During this period, Argentine diplomats and intelligence officers, on Perón's instructions, vigorously encouraged these groups to make their home in Argentina.
  • The country received 12,000 immigrants from Germany between 1946 and 1952, a smaller number than in previous periods. [3]
Volga Germans[edit | edit source]
  • Upon the invitation of Catherine the Great, 25,000 Germans immigrated to the Volga valley of Russia to establish 104 German villages from 1764 to 1767. A century after the first Germans had settled in the Volga region, Russia passed legislation that revoked many of the privileges promised to them by Catherine the Great.
  • Several nations in the Americas were attempting to attract settlers by offering inducements reminiscent of those of Catherine the Great. Soon after the military service bill became law, both Protestant and Catholic Volga Germans gathered and chose delegations to journey across the Atlantic to examine settlement conditions in countries like the United States, Argentina, Brazil, and Canada.
  • Many Catholic Volga Germans chose South America as their new homeland because the official religion in Brazil and Argentina was Roman Catholic. The ratio of Catholic to Protestant Volga Germans in South America was 7 to 1.
  • Under the guidance of Andreas Basgall, Volga Germans started to relocate to Argentina from Brazil in December 1877, and in January 1878 they founded the first Volga German colony of Hinojo, in the province of Buenos Aires.
  • Some large groups of Volga Germans on ships destined for Brazil were diverted to Argentina. These people settled in Colonia General Alvear in the province of Entre Ríos. Additional Volga Germans, some from Brazil and others directly from Russia, arrived in Argentina over the next few years. Colonia General Alvear was for many years the main settlement of Volga Germans in Argentina. Nearly 90% of the first Volga Germans who arrived in Argentina settled there.
  • From both starting points of Colonia General Alvear and of Colonia Hinojo they spread in all directions. There are still fifteen villages in Entre Ríos populated by descendants of the original settlers, twelve of them are of Catholic origin, and the remaining three, Protestant. However, most Volga Germans live in small cities like Ramírez, Crespo, Urdinarrain, Galarza, and Maciá where they usually are the majority. Expansion from Colonia Hinojo went westwards comprising south of Buenos Aires and the province of La Pampa; from there they reached Córdoba and Chaco. Catholic settlers in La Pampa came from south of Buenos Aires and Protestants from Entre Ríos. The former founded Santa María and Santa Teresa, the latter Guatraché, San Martín, and Alpachiri.
  • Today the Volga-German population alone in Argentina is well over 2 million.[3]

Irish Argentinians[edit | edit source]

Irish Online Records[edit | edit source]

Irish Background[edit | edit source]

  • Irish emigrants from the Midlands, Wexford and many counties of Ireland arrived in Argentina mainly from 1830 to 1930, with the largest wave taking place in 1850–1870. The modern Irish-Argentine community is composed of some of their descendants, and the total number is estimated at 500,000–1,000,000.
  • Argentina is the home of the fifth largest Irish community in the world, the largest in a non-English speaking nation and the greatest in Latin America.
  • Most of those who left Ireland arrived in Buenos Aires attracted by the possibility of better living conditions, as the economic, social and political conditions in Ireland at the time were quite poor, but the emigrants came from counties and social segments in which the economic conditions were not the worst (Westmeath, Longford, Offaly, Wexford).
  • Others, in turn, left after receiving favorable descriptions of the country from friends and family who had already arrived in Argentina.
  • The real or perceived possibility to becoming landowners in the Río de la Plata region (Argentina and Uruguay) and consequently joining the South American landed gentry, was the most important factor attracting thousands of young men to the area. Others had arrived earlier as merchants, artisans and mercenaries.
  • For Irish immigrants, the new lands of the Southern Cone of South America brought further interest for immigration to purchase large land tracts for bargain prices, working first as labourers, then in "halves" or "thirds" in the sheep-farming business, and finally renting and purchasing land.[4]

Italian Argentinians[edit | edit source]

Italian Online Sources[edit | edit source]

Italian Argentine Background[edit | edit source]

  • Italian settlements in Argentina, along with Spanish settlements, formed the backbone of today's Argentine society. Argentine culture has significant connections with Italian culture in terms of language, customs, and traditions.
  • Italian is the largest ethnic origin of modern Argentines, after the Spanish immigration during the colonial population. It is estimated that up to 30 million Argentines have some degree of Italian ancestry (62.5% of the total population).
  • Italians began arriving in Argentina in large numbers from 1857 to 1940, totaling 44.9% of the entire postcolonial immigrant population, more than from any other country (including Spain, at 31.5%). In 1996, the population of Argentines of partial or full Italian descent numbered 15.8 million when Argentina’s population was approximately 34.5 million, meaning they represented 45.5% of the population. Today, the country has 30 million Argentines with some degree of Italian ancestry in a total population of 40 million.[5]

Spanish Argentinians[edit | edit source]

Spanish Online Records[edit | edit source]

Spanish Argentine Background[edit | edit source]

  • Spanish settlement in Argentina took place first in the period before Argentina's independence from Spain, and again in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, the Spanish Empire was the sole colonial power in the territories that became Argentina after the 1816 Argentine declaration of independence. Thus, before 1850, the vast majority of European settlers in Argentina were from Spain.
  • A substantial Spanish descended Criollo (Latin Americans who are of solely or of mostly Spanish descent) population gradually built up in the new cities, while some mixed with the indigenous populations (Mestizos), with the Black African-descended slave population (Mulattoes) or with other European immigrants.
  • Since a great portion of the immigrants to Argentina before the mid-19th century were of Spanish descent, and a significant part of the late-19th century/early-20th century immigrants to Argentina were Spaniards, the large majority of Argentines are at least partly of Spanish ancestry.
  • In the post-colonial period (1832-1950), there would be a further influx of Spanish immigrants to Argentina from all over Spain during the Great European immigration wave to Argentina, after the creation of the modern Argentine state. Between 1857 and 1960, 2.2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from Galicia, the Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria, and Catalonia in northern Spain, while significantly smaller numbers of immigrants also arrived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
  • Galicians make up 70% of the Spanish post-colonial immigrant population in Argentina. The city with the world's second largest number of Galician people is Buenos Aires, where immigration from Galicia was so profound that today all Spaniards, regardless of their origin within Spain, are referred to as gallegos (Galicians) in Argentina.
  • Roughly 10-15% of the Argentine population are descended from Basque people, both Spanish and French, and are described as Basque Argentines. They gather in several Basque cultural centers in most of the large cities in the country. A common practice among Argentinians of Basque origin is to identify themselves "French-Basques". This is because of French culture being considered more "fashionable" than Spanish among the average Argentinian.[6]

Welsh Argentinians[edit | edit source]

In 1865, a group of Wales immigrants settled in Patagonia. They founded a settlement that was named Y Wladfa.



Emigration[edit | edit source]

Dark thin font green pin Version 4.png One option is to look for records about the ancestor in the country of destination, the country they immigrated into. See links to immigration records for major destination countries below.
  • People from Argentina known as Argentines whom live overseas in communities across the Americas (like Uruguay and Brazil until the 1990s), western Europe (esp. Spain, Italy, Germany, France and the U.K.) and elsewhere (i.e. Israel), mainly are political refugees from the military junta in the late 1970s and 1980s.
  • Some Argentines chose to leave their country during the troubled years of government turmoil in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • Emigrants from Argentina left records documenting their migration in the country they left as well as in the country they moved to.
  • Most Argentinian emigrants left through Buenos Aires or the major cities with international transportation.
  • There are records of departures including emigration lists, passport records, and passenger lists.
  • The information in these lists varies over time but usually includes the emigrants’ names, ages, occupations, and destinations. In addition, relationships and last residence or birthplace may be given.

Records of Argentina Emigrants in Their Destination Nations[edit | edit source]

Argentinians in Brazil[edit | edit source]

Brazil Online Records[edit | edit source]

Brazil Background[edit | edit source]

  • Most Argentines outside Argentina are people who have migrated from the middle and upper middle classes.
  • The first wave of emigration occurred during the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983, with principally to Spain, USA, Mexico and Venezuela.
  • The last major wave of emigration occurred during the 2001 crisis, mainly to Europe, especially Spain, although there was also an increase in emigration to neighboring countries, particularly Brazil, Chile and Paraguay.[7]

Argentinians in Canada[edit | edit source]

Canada Online Records[edit | edit source]

Canada Background[edit | edit source]

  • The Canadian Immigration Act of 1952 resulted in an increased number of skilled and educated Argentine immigrants to Canada. The majority were fleeing the economic decline and political turmoil following the Revolución Libertadora. An average of 400 Argentines immigrated to Canada annually from 1964 to 1972.
  • Beginning in 1973, increased instability, terrorism and high inflation in Argentina created another wave of immigration to Canada. The rate of immigration increased to more than 1000 persons annually during the mid-1970s. The influx lasted until 1983, coinciding with the progress of Argentine democracy.
  • The highest concentrations of Argentine Canadians are in Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec.[8]

Argentinians in France[edit | edit source]

France Online Records[edit | edit source]

France Background[edit | edit source]

Argentinians in France in 2012 numbered 11,899 (or up to 15,000).[9]


Argentinians in Israel[edit | edit source]

Israel Online Records[edit | edit source]

Israel Background[edit | edit source]

  • Argentine Jewish immigration to Israel has been, and still is, the largest and most significant migratory flow from South America. This is because Argentina has one of the largest Jewish communities in the world. Because of this, many Jewish Argentines are able to make aliyah and become Israeli citizens through the Law of Return. The Argentine community in Israel is about 50,000 people, although some estimates put the figure at 70,000, making it one of the fastest growing groups in the country.
  • Since the establishment of the State of Israel there has been an Argentine Jewish migratory flow to Israel although this flow has fluctuated over time.
  • Argentina has maintained long and stable relations with Israel. The South American nation was always opened to immigrants, and Jews were no exception to this except for a brief period when Jewish immigration was banned. Despite this, thousand of Jews entered Argentina and made it their home.
  • It was not until the 1976 Argentine coup d'état when a large number of Jews fled the country in search of safety.
  • The number of Argentine Jews emigrating to Israel greatly increased throughout the period of the Dirty War. Many of them settled permanently in Israel while others returned to Argentina after the fall of the junta.
  • Many Jewish Argentines choose Israel as an alternative to settle due to political and economic instability that has rocked Argentina in recent decades.
  • It was during the Argentine crisis of 2001 when Israel saw the largest number of olim from the South American country.
  • The 1992 attack on the Israeli embassy and the 1994 bombing of the Jewish Community Center in Buenos Aires also helped create an impetus for Jews to emigrate.
  • There is a significant number of non-Jewish Argentines, having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent, who choose Israel as their new home, either permanently or temporarily.[10]

Argentinians in Spain[edit | edit source]

Spain Online Records[edit | edit source]

Spain Background[edit | edit source]

  • Between 1857 and 1940, more than 2 million Spanish people emigrated to Argentina, mostly from Galicia, Basque Country, Asturias, Cantabria in northern Spain, Catalonia in northeast Spain, and also from Andalusia in southern Spain.[11]
  • As a result of political, social and economic problems that hit the country in recent decades, many Argentines chose to emigrate, mainly to other countries in the Americas or countries where their parents and/or grandparents came from (mainly Spain and Italy).
  • In 2018, 256,071 Argentines lived in Spain. 18,390 lived in Catalonia, with 13,387 in Barcelona. 12,635 lived in Andalucia, with 6,589 in Málaga. 10,526 lived in Valencia, with 5,510 in Alicante. 9,706 lived in Madrid, and 6,746 lived in the Balearic Islands.
  • The Argentines are the fourth most numerous Latin American community in Spain. [12]

Argentinians in the United States[edit | edit source]

United States Online Records[edit | edit source]


Argentinians in Uruguay[edit | edit source]

Uruguay Online Records[edit | edit source]

Uruguay Background[edit | edit source]

  • Many Argentine-born persons reside in Uruguay, for a number of reasons. Both countries share the same language, culture and ethnicity and their populations bear striking similarities. There is no need for special migration documents, and circulation is relatively easy. Uruguay is a small, quiet country, with wide beaches on the Atlantic Ocean, so many Argentines choose Uruguay as their usual holiday destination, some of them even as permanent residence. Argentine people come to Uruguay in search of a better quality of life.
  • The 2011 Uruguayan census revealed 26,782 people who declared Argentina as their country of birth.[6] In 2013, there were almost 6,000 Argentine citizens registered in the Uruguayan social security.[13]

For Further Reading[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Argentina: Ethnography", in Wkikpedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentina#Ethnography, accessed 10 May 2021.
  2. "French Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "German Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.
  4. "Irish Argentine", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Argentine, accessed 11 May 2021.
  5. "Italian Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Argentines, accessed 17 April 2021.
  6. "Spanish Argentines", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Argentines, accessed 12 May 2021.
  7. "Argentinian Brazilians", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Brazilians, accessed 11 May 2021.
  8. "Argentine Canadians", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Canadians, accessed 11 May 2021.
  9. "Immigration to France", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_France, accessed 11 May 2021.
  10. "Argentines in Israel", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentine_Jews_in_Israel, accessed 11 May 2021.
  11. "Ethnic groups of Argentina", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_groups_of_Argentina, accessed 11 Mat 2021.
  12. "Argentines in Spain", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentines_in_Spain, accessed 11 May 2021.
  13. "Argentines in Uruguay", in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argentines_in_Uruguay, accessed 11 May 2021.