Difference between revisions of "African American Migration"

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A record of major migrations of African Americans and precipitating events.  <br><br>
 
A record of major migrations of African Americans and precipitating events.  <br><br>
  
 
=== Emigration to Canada ===
 
=== Emigration to Canada ===
*[https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?from=fhd&dps_pid=IE6968346 Benjamin Drew. ''A north-side view of slavery : the refugee, or, The narratives of fugitive slaves in Canada related by themselves, with an account of the history and condition of the colored population of Upper Canada.'' Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1856. Digital Book]  
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/library/books/records/item/374424-the-refugee-or-the-narratives-of-fugitive-slaves-in-canada-microform?offset=1 Benjamin Drew. ''A north-side view of slavery : the refugee, or, The narratives of fugitive slaves in Canada related by themselves, with an account of the history and condition of the colored population of Upper Canada.'' Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1856. Digital Book]  
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1804488?availability=Family%20History%20Library George Hendrick. "Black refugees in Canada : accounts of escape during the era of slavery." Jefferson, McFArland & Co., 2010. FHL 971 H6h]  
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1804488?availability=Family%20History%20Library George Hendrick. ''Black refugees in Canada : accounts of escape during the era of slavery.'' Jefferson, McFarland & Co., 2010. FHL 971 H6h]
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*[https://archive.org/details/refugeesfromslav00howe/page/n5 S.G. Howe. ''The Refugees from Slavery in Canada West. Report to the Freedmen's Inquiry Commission.'' Boston: Wright & Potter, printers, 1864.]
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*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Freedmen%27s_Inquiry_Commission Freedmen's Inquiry Commission]
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==== American Revolution ====
 
==== American Revolution ====
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=== [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underground_Railroad Underground Railroad] ===
 
=== [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underground_Railroad Underground Railroad] ===
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/33754822 Underground Railroad National Historical Park - Selected Routes of the Underground Railroad. NAID 33754822 - National Archives]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/68886418 National Scenic Byway- Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad (Maryland) NAID 68886418 - National Archives]
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*[https://freedomonthemove.org/ Freedom on the Move. A database of fugitives from American Slavery. Cornell University]
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*[https://archive.org/details/undergroundrail00stil/page/n11 William Still.''The underground rail road : a record of facts, authentic narratives, letters, &c., narrating the hardships, hair-breadth escapes, and death struggles of the slaves in their efforts for freedom, as related by themselves and others or witnessed by the author : together with sketches of some of the largest stockholders and most liberal aiders and advisers of the road.'' Philadelphia: Porter & Coates, 1872.]
  
 
==== [https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1205/index.htm Nework to Freedom - National Park Service] ====
 
==== [https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1205/index.htm Nework to Freedom - National Park Service] ====
 +
  
 
*'''[https://www.nps.gov/subjects/ugrr/about_ntf/index.htm Network to Freedom - Index]'''
 
*'''[https://www.nps.gov/subjects/ugrr/about_ntf/index.htm Network to Freedom - Index]'''
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*[https://www.nps.gov/hatu/planyourvisit/index.htm Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad - National Historical Park Maryland]   
 
*[https://www.nps.gov/hatu/planyourvisit/index.htm Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad - National Historical Park Maryland]   
  
 
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''' Reference Sources '''
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1339253?availability=Family%20History%20Library J. Blaine Hudson. ''Encyclopedia of the underground railroad'' Jefferson, North Carolina : McFarland & Co., 2006. FHL 973 H26hj]   
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1339253?availability=Family%20History%20Library J. Blaine Hudson. ''Encyclopedia of the underground railroad'' Jefferson, North Carolina : McFarland & Co., 2006. FHL 973 H26hj]   
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/131446?availability=Family%20History%20Library Larry Gara. ''The liberty line : the legend of the Underground Railroad.''Lexington, Kentucky : University of Kentucky Press, 1961. FHL973 F2ag]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/131446?availability=Family%20History%20Library Larry Gara. ''The liberty line : the legend of the Underground Railroad.''Lexington, Kentucky : University of Kentucky Press, 1961. FHL973 F2ag]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/86666?availability=Family%20History%20Library William Still. ''The Underground railroad'' reprint of 1871 ed. New York, New York : Arno Press, 1968. FHL 973 F2asL]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/86666?availability=Family%20History%20Library William Still. ''The Underground railroad'' reprint of 1871 ed. New York, New York : Arno Press, 1968. FHL 973 F2asL]  
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1001049?availability=Family%20History%20Library  Wilbur H. Siebert. ''The Underground railroad from slavery to freedom.'' reprint of 1898 ed.North Stratford, New Hampshire : Ayer Pub. Co., 2000. FHL 973 F2siw]   
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1001049?availability=Family%20History%20Library  Wilbur H. Siebert. ''The Underground railroad from slavery to freedom.'' reprint of 1898 ed.North Stratford, New Hampshire : Ayer Pub. Co., 2000. FHL 973 F2siw]  
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1478714?availability=Family%20History%20Library Peter hinks and John McKivigan, eds., R. Owen Williams, assistant Ed., '' Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition.'' Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2007. FHL 326.803 H593e vols. 1-2]
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''' State and Local Sources Publications'''
 
''' State and Local Sources Publications'''
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=== [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slave_laws Fugitive Slave Laws] ===
 
=== [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slave_laws Fugitive Slave Laws] ===
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*''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1793 Fugitive Slave Act of 1783]'''
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*''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850]'''
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*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slaves_in_the_United_States Fugitive Slaves in the United States]
  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/81706?availability=Family%20History%20Library Stanley W. Campbell. ''The slave catchers : enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860.'' Chapel Hill,North Carolina:University of North Carolina Press, 970. FHL 973 F2acm]
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/81706?availability=Family%20History%20Library Stanley W. Campbell. ''The slave catchers : enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law, 1850-1860.'' Chapel Hill,North Carolina:University of North Carolina Press, 970. FHL 973 F2acm]
 
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slaves_in_the_United_States Fugitive Slaves in the United States]
 
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/29628?availability=Family%20History%20Library Judicial Cases]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/29628?availability=Family%20History%20Library Judicial Cases]  
  
''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1793 Fugitive Slave Act of 1783]'''
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'''National Archives Catalog - US District & Circuit Courts records of [https://catalog.archives.gov/id/10639740 Fugitive Slaves Cases]'''
  
''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850]'''
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/295961 Stovall v. Archy, a Slave. US Circuit Court for the Northern District of California. NAID 295961]
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/10639740 National Archives Catalog Fugitive Slaves]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/279005 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1850-1860. US Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. NAID 279005]
 
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/4306299 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1851-1863. US District Court for the District of Columbia. NAID 4306299]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/4306299 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1851-1863. US District Court for the District of Columbia. NAID 4306299]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/278775 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1850-1860. US District Court for the District of Maryland. NAID 278775]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/278775 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1850-1860. US District Court for the District of Maryland. NAID 278775]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/278889 Fugitive Slave Record Book, 1850-1860. US District Court for the District of Maryland. NAID 278889]
 
*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/278889 Fugitive Slave Record Book, 1850-1860. US District Court for the District of Maryland. NAID 278889]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/2814290 Law Case Files,1837-1911. U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern (Detroit) Division of the Eastern District of Michigan. NAID 2814290]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/278341 Records Relating to Fugitive Slaves, 10.17.1837-4.30.1860. U.S. Circuit Court for the Southern District of New York. NAID 278341]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/279005 Fugitive Slave Case Files, 1850-1860. US Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. NAID 279005]
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''' National Archives'''
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*[https://www.archives.gov/nyc/exhibit/stephen-pembrook.html Fugitive Slave Case: Stephen Pembrook. National Archives at New York City]
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'''FamilySearch Wiki Coverage Table'''
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Fugitive_Slave_Law_Court_Records_-_Maryland_-_National_Archives_Catalog Fugitive Slave Law Court Records - Maryland - National Archives Catalog]
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/Fugitive_Slave_Law_Court_Records_-_New_York_and_Pennsylvania_-_National_Archives_Catalog Fugitive Slave Law Court Records - New York and Pennsylvania - National Archives Catalog]
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''' FamilySearch Catalog'''
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/29628?availability=Family%20History%20Library Helen Honor Tunnicliff Catterall. ''Judicial cases concerning American slavery and the Negro.'' 5 volumes. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1926 reprint. New York, New York : Negro Universities Press, 1968. FHL Digital Books]
  
 
=== Emigration to Liberia  ===
 
=== Emigration to Liberia  ===
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''' American Colonization Society Sources'''  
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''' American Colonization Society Sources'''
*[https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html Library of Congress. American Colonization Society]
 
 
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Colonization_Society Wikipedia. American Colonization Society]
 
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Colonization_Society Wikipedia. American Colonization Society]
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''' Library of Congress '''
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*[https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html Library of Congress. American Colonization Society]
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*[https://www.loc.gov/item/mm78010660/ American Colonization Society Records]
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*[http://findingaids.loc.gov/db/search/xq/searchMfer02.xq?_id=loc.mss.eadmss.ms009329&_faSection=overview&_faSubsection=did&_dmdid= Finding Aid: Collection Summary]
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''' State Sources '''
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*[http://www.mdhs.org/findingaid/american-colonization-society/liberia-collection-pp161 Maryland Historical Society. American Colonization Society/Liberia Collection]
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*[https://www.mdhs.org/findingaid/maryland-state-colonization-society-papers-1827-1871-ms-571 Maryland Historical Society. Maryland State Colonization Society Papers, 1827-1871. MS 571]
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*[http://archives.nypl.org/scm/20819 New York State Colonization Society Records, 1849-1968. New York Public Library - Archives & Manuscripts]
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''' National Archives'''
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/1786936 Letters Received Relating to African Colonization, 1/5/1819 - 3/10/1841. National Archives Catalog. NAID 1786936]
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*[https://catalog.archives.gov/id/1768603 Letters Sent Relating to African Colonization, 1/17/1820 - 1858, National Archives Catalog. NAID 1768603]
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''' Publications'''
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/library/books/records/item/581037-the-american-colonization-society-1817-1840?viewer=1&offset=0#page=2&viewer=picture&o=info&n=0&q= Early Lee Fox.'' The American Colonization Society, 1817-1840.'' 1919 reprint.New York, New York : AMS Press, 1971]
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/785285?availability=Family%20History%20Library Tom W. Shick. ''Emigrants to Liberia, 1820 to 1843, an alphabetical listing.''Newark, Delaware : University of Delaware Department of Anthropology & Liberian Studies Association in America, 1971. FHL 966.62 W2e]
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/785285?availability=Family%20History%20Library Tom W. Shick. ''Emigrants to Liberia, 1820 to 1843, an alphabetical listing.''Newark, Delaware : University of Delaware Department of Anthropology & Liberian Studies Association in America, 1971. FHL 966.62 W2e]
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/330712?availability=Family%20History%20Library Tom W. Shick. ''Behold the promised land : a history of Afro-American settler society in nineteenth-century Liberia.'' Baltimore, Maryland : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. FHL 966.62 H2s]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/330712?availability=Family%20History%20Library Tom W. Shick. ''Behold the promised land : a history of Afro-American settler society in nineteenth-century Liberia.'' Baltimore, Maryland : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980. FHL 966.62 H2s]  
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1373073?availability=Family%20History%20Library Eric Burin. ''Slavery and the peculiar solution : a history of the American Colonization Society.'' Gainesville, Florida : University Press of Florida, 2005. FHL 973 C4be]
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1373073?availability=Family%20History%20Library Eric Burin. ''Slavery and the peculiar solution : a history of the American Colonization Society.'' Gainesville, Florida : University Press of Florida, 2005. FHL 973 C4be]   
*[http://www.mdhs.org/findingaid/american-colonization-society/liberia-collection-pp161 Maryland Historical Society. American Colonization Society/Liberia Collection]   
+
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1210727?availability=Family%20History%20Library Richard L. Hall. '' "On Africa's Shore." A History of Maryland in Liberia, 1834-1857.'' Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland Historical Society, 2003. FHL 966.62 H2d]  
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/1210727?availability=Family%20History%20Library Richard L. Hall. '' "On Afric's Shore." A History of Maryland in Liberia, 1834-1857.'' Baltimore, Maryland: Maryland Historical Society, 2003. FHL 966.62 H2d]  
 
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/58743?availability=Family%20History%20Library Penelope Campbell. ''Maryland in Africa: the Maryland Colonization Society,1831-1857.''Urbana, Illinois : University of Illinois Press, 1971. FHL 966.6 H2c]
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/58743?availability=Family%20History%20Library Penelope Campbell. ''Maryland in Africa: the Maryland Colonization Society,1831-1857.''Urbana, Illinois : University of Illinois Press, 1971. FHL 966.6 H2c]
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*[https://archive.org/details/removaloffreecol00mary/page/n2 Maryland. Report of the Select Committee, to Whom was Referred the Subject of the Removal of the Free Colored Population from Charles County.]
  
 
=== Migration within the United States ===
 
=== Migration within the United States ===
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'''Migration after the Civil War'''<br>Between 1790 and 1900, 90% of African Americans lived in the South.<br>By 1960, 50% of African Americans lived in the South.  
 
'''Migration after the Civil War'''<br>Between 1790 and 1900, 90% of African Americans lived in the South.<br>By 1960, 50% of African Americans lived in the South.  
  
*100,000 African Americans moved to Kansas in late 1870s, early 1880s
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*100,000 African Americans moved to Kansas in late 1870's, early 1880's
 
*500,000 African Americans left the south during WWI (1916-1919)  
 
*500,000 African Americans left the south during WWI (1916-1919)  
 
*90,000 to Pennsylvania  
 
*90,000 to Pennsylvania  
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*43,000 to Michigan
 
*43,000 to Michigan
  
*1 million African Americans left the South in the 1920s
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*1 million African Americans left the South in the 1920's
 
*5 million African Americans left the South between 1940-1960  
 
*5 million African Americans left the South between 1940-1960  
*During 1970s, African Americans started returning to the South, especially to larger, urban cities.  
+
*During 1970's, African Americans started returning to the South, especially to larger, urban cities.  
 
*By 1990, 84% of African Americans lived in urban areas.  
 
*By 1990, 84% of African Americans lived in urban areas.  
 
*See ''Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration 1915-1940''by Spencer Crew.
 
*See ''Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration 1915-1940''by Spencer Crew.
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[[Category:African_American Records]]
 
[[Category:African_American Records]]
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[[Category:Slavery_and_Bondage]]

Revision as of 14:00, 17 April 2020

African American Genealogy Wiki Topics
African American Image 5.jpg
Beginning Research
Original Records
Compiled Sources
Background Information
Finding Aids

A record of major migrations of African Americans and precipitating events.

Emigration to Canada[edit | edit source]


American Revolution[edit | edit source]

American slaves migrated to Canada in search of freedom after the American Revolution See: Africans in Canada

Underground Railroad[edit | edit source]

Nework to Freedom - National Park Service[edit | edit source]

Reference Sources


State and Local Sources Publications

Archives and Libraries

Ohio Historical Society

Historical Society of Pennsylvania

Harvard Library

Indiana Department of Natural Resources


Additional Sources

There was a notable community in Nova Scotia. Some of the newly free slaves would intermingle with Canadian Indians, as they often did in the U.S. Don't ignore Canada when looking for your African American ancestors! Check out this site about Harriet Tubman

For more, see: Canada First Nations Genealogy Research Community

Fugitive Slave Laws[edit | edit source]

National Archives Catalog - US District & Circuit Courts records of Fugitive Slaves Cases

National Archives

FamilySearch Wiki Coverage Table

FamilySearch Catalog

Emigration to Liberia[edit | edit source]

Liberia History


American Colonization Society Sources

Library of Congress

State Sources

National Archives

Publications

Migration within the United States[edit | edit source]

Slave Populations before the Civil War

By 1790, nearly all Africans to be imported to the United States had already arrived. They lived in primarily four states.

  • Virginia—293,000
  • South Carolina—107,000
  • Maryland—103,000
  • North Carolina—101,000
  • No other state had more than 30,000 enslaved people.

Between 1820 and 1860, huge increases in slave population occurred across the South. Slave populations in 1860 are listed below:

  • Virginia—491,000
  • Georgia—462,000
  • Mississippi—437,000
  • Alabama—435,000
  • South Carolina—402,000
  • Louisiana—332,000
  • North Carolina—331,000
  • Tennessee—275,000
  • Kentucky—225,000
  • Texas—183,000
  • Missouri—115,000
  • Arkansas—111,000

Migration after the Civil War
Between 1790 and 1900, 90% of African Americans lived in the South.
By 1960, 50% of African Americans lived in the South.

  • 100,000 African Americans moved to Kansas in late 1870's, early 1880's
  • 500,000 African Americans left the south during WWI (1916-1919)
  • 90,000 to Pennsylvania
  • 73,000 to Illinois
  • 43,000 to Michigan
  • 1 million African Americans left the South in the 1920's
  • 5 million African Americans left the South between 1940-1960
  • During 1970's, African Americans started returning to the South, especially to larger, urban cities.
  • By 1990, 84% of African Americans lived in urban areas.
  • See Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration 1915-1940by Spencer Crew.

Enslaved in the North
By 1800, approximately 37,000 northern blacks were still reported in bondage. By 1830, most northern states had required freeing of slaves although 3,600 people remained in bondage, mostly in New Jersey.

Free Blacks
In 1860, there were 488,000 free blacks or about 10% of total African Americans in the U.S.

  • 46% of free blacks (226,000) lived in North and West
  • 46% lived in upper South (KY, MD, MO, TN, VA, NC, DC)
  • 8% lived in deep South