United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education - FamilySearch Historical Records
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United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education, 1865-1872
|This article describes a collection of records at FamilySearch.org.|
|Flag of the United States of America|
|US Flag 1863-1865 (35 stars)|
|National Archives and Records Administration Logo|
|Record Type||Monthly Teacher Reports and Monthly Reports of the Sub-Assistant Commissioner or Agents|
|Record Group||RG 105: Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands|
|National Archives Identifier||434|
|National Archives and Records Administration|
- 1 What is in This Collection?
- 2 What Can These Records Tell Me?
- 3 Collection Content
- 4 How Do I Search This Collection?
- 5 What Do I Do Next?
- 6 Related Book
- 7 General Information About Freedmen's Bureau Records
- 8 Related FamilySearch Historical Records Collection Articles
- 9 Citing This Collection
- 10 How Can I Contribute to the FamilySearch Wiki?
What is in This Collection?[edit | edit source]
The collection consists of images of the records of the Superintendent of Education and the Education Division of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (often called the Freedmen’s Bureau). Most of the collection will consist of monthly teacher reports and monthly reports of the sub-assistant commissioner or agents. The event date is the date the report was completed either by the teacher or agent. Reports can also identify the name and location of schools as well as the society sponsoring a teacher.The following link will provide a description of the record types found in this and other Freedmen's Bureau collections. Freedmen's Bureau Record Types
This collection corresponds with the following NARA microfilm publications:
- Records of the Superintendent of Education for the state of:
- Alabama, M810: Rolls 1, 4-8
- Arkansas, M980: Roll 5 National Archives Pamphlet M980
- District of Columbia, M1056: Rolls 12-24 National Archives Pamphlet M1056
- Georgia, M799: Rolls 16-28 National Archives Pamphlet M799
- Louisiana, M1026: Rolls 3-12 National Archives Pamphlet M1026
- North Carolina, M844: Rolls 13-15 National Archives Pamphlet M844
- Tennessee, M1000: Rolls 6-9 National Archives Pamphlet M1000
- Texas, M822: Rolls 11-18 National Archives Pamphlet M822
- Virginia, M1053: Rolls 11-20 National Archives Pamphlet M1053
- Records of the Education Division, M803: 15-35 National Archives Pamphlet M803
To Browse This Collection[edit | edit source]
|You can browse through images in this collection by visiting the browse page for United States, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education, 1865-1872.|
What Can These Records Tell Me?[edit | edit source]
The Bureau was created in 1865 at the end of the American Civil War to supervise relief efforts including education, health care, food and clothing, refugee camps, legalization of marriages, employment, labor contracts, and securing back pay, bounty payments and pensions. These records include letters and endorsements sent and received, account books, applications for rations, applications for relief, court records, labor contracts, registers of bounty claimants, registers of complaints, registers of contracts, registers of disbursements, registers of freedmen issued rations, registers of patients, reports, rosters of officers and employees, special and general orders and circulars received, special orders and circulars issued, records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads.
The information varies by document. You may find any of the following:
- Name of the freedman
- Name of the freedman’s former owner
- Date of the record
- Document dates
Collection Content[edit | edit source]
Sample Images[edit | edit source]
How Do I Search This Collection?[edit | edit source]
To begin your search it is helpful to know:
- The name of your ancestor
- The approximate age of your ancestor
- The place where your ancestor lived
- The name of the former slave owner
Search the Index[edit | edit source]Search by name by visiting the Collection Details Page.
- Fill in the search boxes in the Search Collection section with the information you know
- Click Search to show possible matches
View the Images[edit | edit source]
View images in this collection by visiting the Browse Page:
- Select Education Division or State
- Select NARA Roll Number Film Notes to view the images.
|More images are available in the FamilySearch Catalog at United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education, 1865-1872. Some catalog records link to multiple references. In this case, click on a reference to find a camera icon to see images.|
How Do I Analyze the Results?[edit | edit source]
Compare each result from your search with what you know to determine if there is a match. This may require viewing multiple records or images. Keep track of your research in a research log.
What Do I Do Next?[edit | edit source]
I Found the Person I Was Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- Use the place of residence, age, and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records
- Use the information found to search for church records
- Use the information found to search for land and probate records
- Use the information found to search additional state and county records
I Can't Find the Person I'm Looking For, What Now?[edit | edit source]
- There may be more than one person in the records with the same name
- Look for variant spellings of the names. You should also look for nicknames and abbreviated names
- Look for another index. Local genealogical and historical societies often have indexes to local records
- Search the indexes and records of nearby counties
- Try alternative search methods such as only filling in the surname search box (or the given name search box) on the landing page leaving the other box empty and then click on search. This should return a list of everyone with that particular name. You could then browse the list for individuals that may be your ancestor
- Former slaves may have had used multiple names or changed their names until they decided upon one particular name. Search all possible names along with variations or spellings of their known names
Research Helps[edit | edit source]
The following articles will help you in your research for your family in the United States.
Related Book[edit | edit source]
- The fire of liberty in their hearts : the diary of Jacob E. Yoder of the Freedmen's Bureau School, Lynchburg, Virginia, 1866-1870
General Information About Freedmen's Bureau Records[edit | edit source]
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.
The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.
The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America.
The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau. Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.
Related FamilySearch Historical Records Collection Articles[edit | edit source]
- Alabama, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Arkansas, Field Offices Records of the Freedmen's Bureau - FamilySearch Historical Records
- District of Columbia, Freedmen's Bureau Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Georgia, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Louisiana, Freedmen's Bureau Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- North Carolina, Freedmen Bureau Field Office Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Tennessee, Freedmen's Bureau Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Texas, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
- Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Records - FamilySearch Historical Records
Citing This Collection[edit | edit source]
Citations help you keep track of places you have searched and sources you have found. Identifying your sources helps others find the records you used.
The citation for this collection can be found on the Collection Details Page in the section Citing this Collection.
When looking at a record, the citation can be viewed by clicking the drop-down arrow next to Document Information.
When looking at an image, the citation is found on the Information tab at the bottom left of the screen.
How Can I Contribute to the FamilySearch Wiki?[edit | edit source]
|We welcome user additions to FamilySearch Historical Records wiki articles. We are looking for additional information that will help readers understand the topic and better use the available records. We also need translations for collection titles and images in articles about records written in languages other than English. For specific needs, please visit WikiProject FamilySearch Historical Records.|
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