Stockbridge-Munsee Indian Reservation (Wisconsin)
The Stockbridge-Munsee Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Wisconsin.
- Established -- 24 November 1848
- Agency (BIA) -- Great Lakes Agency
- Principal tribes -- Stockbridge, Munsee
- Population --
History[edit | edit source]
The Stockbridge-Munsee Reservation (originally called the Stockbridge Reservation) was established by Treaties of Nov. 24,1848 (Ix, 955), Feb. 5, 1856 (xi, 663), and Feb. 11, 1856 (xi, 679)and acts of Feb. 6, 1871 (xvi, 404) and June 22, 1874 (xvIII, 174).
Originally, the Stockbridge Chippewa's lived in eastern New York and western Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut. Their territory was located in the Hudson River Valley of mainly New York. It included land along the Mohawk River to the west, where Oneida Lake is, then to Lake Ontario. All land to the north was Chippewa land including the Adirondack Mountains. It also included the land on both sides of Lake Champlain.
During the 1830s, Chippewa leaders knew from prophecy that they had to move away from the whites. They, thus, commenced to leave their Oneida Reservation in New York, to migrate into southern Ontario. They also migrated to northeastern Wisconsin. Many others joined other Chippewa's and migrated towards the west into the Montana region, while others migrated to the Kansas-Missouri region.
Through negotiations with the Menominee Chippewa's and representatives from the United States, the Stockbridge-Munsee Chippewa's and Oneida were set aside a 44,000 acre Reservation within the Menominee Reservation. It is located in the southwestern part of the Menominee Reservation.
According to the 2000 census, the population of the Stockbridge-Munsee Chippewa and Oneida Reservation was 1,527. Indians accounted for 769 of the total population. Whites accounted for 716 of the total population. Mixed bloods and Mexicans accounted for 63 of the total population.
Stockbridge Indians are better known as the Mahican. The Mahican were a totem of the Chippewa's. In Anishinabe, Mahican means wolf, or the wolf totem or wolf clan or wolf nation. Some confuse the Mohegan with the Mahican. Both are probably the same people.
Mahican people spoke the same language as the Chippewa's. They could speak with each other without any difficulties understanding each other. It means they are the same people. 19th century books clearly prove the Stockbridge are Chippewa. Andrew Blackbird's book is one of those books.
Records[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Wisconsin Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.
http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-158.html History of the Stockbridge-Munsee
http://www.anishinabe-history.com/History_of_the_Ottawa_and_Chippewa_India.pdf Andrew Blackbird's History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
- Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142i. Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
- Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
- Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972. WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
- United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
- United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
- United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.