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Step-by-Step Indiana Research, 1900 to the Present

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  • A suggested approach to genealogy research in Indiana family history records.

Step-by-Step Indiana
Research, 1900 to the Present
1. Contact living relatives.
2. Online census records.
3. Births, marriages, and deaths online.
4. Obituary and cemetery records online.
5. Military records online.
6. Immigration and naturalization records online.
7. Study clues.


What sets this era in Indiana genealogy apart from earlier time periods are the advent of civil registration (state birth, marriage, and death certificates) and the possibility that you have older living relatives who can provide memories and family records. In addition, U. S. census records (occurred every 10 years--1900-1940), state censuses, Social Security collections, obituary and cemetery records make it possible to find a lot of genealogical information in just a few rich record types.
See also, How to Use "Record Hints".[edit | edit source]

Step 1. Find out everything you can from living relatives and their family records:[edit | edit source]

Every good genealogy project starts with finding all the clues you can gather from living relatives — both from their memories and from documents or memorabilia in their homes.

What should you ask?[edit | edit source]

In order to extend your research on your ancestors, you are looking for names, dates, and places. Everything you learn that tells you about when and where a relative lived is a clue to a new record search. Be sure to ask questions that lead to that information, including about their occupations, military service, or associations with others, such as fraternal organizations. See also:

What documents should you look for and ask to copy?[edit | edit source]

  • Announcements of births, weddings,
    and anniversaries
  • Baby and wedding books
  • Certificates
  • Deeds, and property records
  • Family Bibles
  • Family reunion notices and records
  • Fraternal or society records
  • Insurance policies
  • Journals and diaries
  • Letters and cards
  • Licenses (business, marriage,
    fishing, driving)
  • Naturalization documents
  • Newspaper clippings and obituaries
  • Medical records
  • Military service and pension documents
  • Occupational awards
  • Passports
  • Personal histories and biographies
  • Photograph albums
  • Printed Notices and Announcements
  • Programs (graduation, award ceremonies, funerals)
  • School records
  • Scrapbooks
  • Wills and trusts

Family Members Born After 1940[edit | edit source]

Because the most recent census available was taken in 1940, family documents and the knowledge of living family members play a vital role in identifying these people. Once you have learned names, places of residence, and clues to estimate approximate birth date, the next important step is to send for birth, marriage, and death records for them. Skip to Step 3: Find birth, marriage, and death certificates for your ancestors and their children.


Indiana obituary .png
Indiana newspaper marriage notice.png

Using the clues to lead to census record searches.[edit | edit source]

Here are two documents you might find in a home search: a newspaper clipping of marriage banns and an obituary:

  • Take a look at the marriage announcement. One of the couples, John Main and Louise Humboldt will be our example. Their banns for marriage are announced in the Fort Wayne, Indiana, newspaper in April of 1906. So they probably married in late April or early May of that year. We will look for them in the census records for 1910, 1920, 1930, and 1940.. We can also try to find John and Louise living in their parents' homes in 1900 and 1910..
  • The obituary is for Dora Evelyn Simmons, who was born in 1918 in Daviess County, Indiana. We can look for her by her maiden name, Dora Lett in the census records 1920, 1930. She married Randall Jack Simmons in 1937, so we will look for them as a couple in 1940. The obituary also tells us that her parents were Roy Gus Lett and Eva May Combs, so we will also look for them in the census records for 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, and 1940.
  • Click on the links in each example to see how these searches turned out. Notice the new information found. Later, these clues will help us find them in more records. We are able to identify the children of both families and the siblings of Dora Lett. In addition, we find birth dates and birth places for Dora and her parents. We also find the names of John Main's parents and their birth information.

Step 2. Find your ancestors in every possible census record, 1900-1940.[edit | edit source]

A census is a count and description of the population of a country, state, county, or city for a given date. A census took a "snapshot" of a family on a certain day. For each person living in a household you might find (depending on the year) their name, age, birthplace, relationship to head of household, place of birth for father and mother, citizenship status, year of immigration, mother of how many children and number of children living, native language, and whether they were a veteran of the military.

To learn more about census records, including search strategies, see United States Census Records for Beginners.

Look at the samples of census records below. You should find your family members in every possible census, using these convenient links. The records from FamilySearch Historical records can be searched without cost, but the search engine is not as exact as the paid sites. Ancestry.com and MyHeritage.com can be searched free of charge at your local family history center or the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1900 United States Federal Census

1910 United States Federal Census

1920 United States Federal Census

1930 United States Federal Census

1940 United States Federal Census

United States census records[edit | edit source]

  • Here is a sample of a 1900 United States census record. You can see all the different information you can glean from this record once you find your family in the census.
    1900 United States Census.jpg
  • You will want to find and keep notes on census records from every census during each ancestor's lifetime. For example, if your ancestor was born in 1897 and died in 1945, you will want to find them in the 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, and 1940 censuses. Note that there are census records available from 1790 until 1940.
  • With the census records you will be able to estimate approximate birth dates and marriage dates. These records will lead you to new searches because you will find the names of other members of the family. You will find clues to other states and countries your family lived in before coming to Indiana.

Using the census clues to lead to a birth certificate.[edit | edit source]

  • Birth indexes are available through 1933. We should search them for John G. and Louise Main and for all of their children listed in the census records.
  • We can also look for birth records for the children of Gus and Eva Lett. However, their daughter, Dora, and her husband, Randall Simmons, married in 1937. So for their children, we would have to write for their birth certificates.
  • Because we found the parents of John G. Main, Clarence and Suzanne, we can look in birth indexes for their children. See the index entry for the birth of their son, Edwin, in Examples of Index Entries, Birth Index.

Using the census clues to lead to a marriage certificate.[edit | edit source]

  • Now that we know the names of the brothers and sisters of Dora Evelyn Lett, we can look for their marriage records. In addition to obtaining their marriage dates, we search for these records because they cam also contain birth dates and places.
  • We can also look for the marriage of the parents: Gus and Eva Lett and Clarence and Susan Main.

Using the census clues to lead to a death certificate.[edit | edit source]

Online death indexes for all of Indiana currently end with 1920. Many of the people we have found in census records lived longer than that, except for Clarence W. Main. Death certificate for the others are still probably available ordering through the mail.


Step 3: Find birth, marriage, and death certificates for your ancestors and their children.[edit | edit source]

States, counties, or even towns in some states recorded births, marriages, and deaths. You have probably seen these types of certificates and have your own. In addition to the child's name, birth date, and place of birth, a birth certificate may give the birthplaces of the parents, their ages, and occupations. A death certificate may give the person's birth date and place, parents' names and birthplaces, and spouse's name.

Tip Tip1.jpg Remember that for family members born after 1940 you do not have census records to rely on. The information from interviewing family members will hopefully give you enough detail that you know approximate years of birth, marriage, or death. Sending for certificates will help verify identities, prove relationships, and fill in greater detail.

Studying what you have found:[edit | edit source]

Cycle icon.jpg
  • Review what you have found to see if there is missing information that could be found in a birth, marriage, or death certificate for your ancestors and their children.
  • If you are missing the names of parents, find a person's death certificate. It may contain the names of the deceased's parents, which would extend your pedigree back one more generation.
  • If you find a child listed in a census record, try to find their actual birth certificate to learn their full birth date.
  • If a married couple is shown in the census records and you need the wife's maiden name, search for their marriage record or her death record. The mother's maiden name should also be given in her children's birth certificates.

Obtaining the certificates[edit | edit source]

  • There are basically three ways to find these certificates, or the information from them: by finding them in an online database, by reading a microflim, or by purchasing them through the mail .

Online databases[edit | edit source]

  • This chart gives links to some Indiana online databases for these records. These are indexes of records. Frequently, the actual record will give greater detail.

Also, see How to Find Indiana Birth Records.

Also, see How to Find Indiana Marriage Records.

Also, see How to Find Indiana Death Records.

Examples of Index Entries[edit | edit source]

Birth Index[edit | edit source]

Indiana birth index.png

Marriage Index[edit | edit source]

Indiana Marriage index.png

Death[edit | edit source]

Indiana death index.png

Finding Microfilm Copies of Certificates[edit | edit source]

Some Indiana state, county, and Indian agency birth, death, and marriage certificates are available on microfilm through the Family History Library. These may be searched at a Family History Center near you. Most notably, you will find:


Digitized copies of some of these microfilms are also available online, as the film description will indicate.

Records at the County Courthouse[edit | edit source]

From the date of the formation of a county until the establishment of state civil registration, birth and marriage records were kept by the County Clerk. They may have been microfilmed, or you can write for them. It is appropriate to write asking for either a single record or for a list of all the marriages for a given surname. This Letter Writing Guide will help you with phrasing a letter. This online directory by Genealogy Inc. will give you the address of the County Clerk. Click on the map to select a county, then scroll down to the "Courthouse and Government Records" to find the address and phone number.

If you are at the main Family History Library, check first to see if microfilms of the county vital records are available. In the search field of the FamilySearch Catalog, enter the state and county. Then click on the "Vital Records" subject. The cost of renting the microfilms at a Family History Center probably makes it less expensive to just write to the County Clerk.

Ordering certificates through the mail[edit | edit source]

Even if you find an online indexed entry for a birth, marriage, or death, almost always the full original certificate will contain a wealth of information not contained in the index. A death certificate will usually give the names and birth places of the parents of the deceased. A marriage certificate frequently asks for the parents names of the bride and groom. A birth certificate frequently asks for the birth place, occupation, residence, and age of the parents. Although it costs money, consider sending for the full original certificates at least of your direct line ancestors (grandparents, great-grandparents).

  • Click here for information on how to order birth or death records. This will require an application (download here. The form includes applicable fees, identification requirements, and mailing address. The cost for the first certificate is $10.00 and $4.00 for each additional copy.
  • Click here for information on how to order marriage records.
Examples of records[edit | edit source]

Here are some samples of Indiana certificates. Notice the types of information available in each. Also, notice that they give much more detail that just the indexes above.

Indiana birth certificate.png Indiana Marriage Register 1920.jpg Indiana death certificate.png


Step 4: Using all the death date information, try to find additional details about your ancestors in Social Security records, obituaries, and cemetery records online.[edit | edit source]

U.S. Social Security Death Index and Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007[edit | edit source]

The U.S. Social Security program began in 1935 but most deaths recorded in the index happened after 1962. The Social Security Death index includes those who had a Social Security number and/or applied for benefits. The index entries give the person's full birth date, last known residence, and residence at the time they first enrolled. Women are listed under their married name at the time of their death. You can search these records online at United States Social Security Death Index. Also at Ancestry.com, ($), index.

The Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 picks up where the Social Security Death Index (SSDI) leaves off, by providing information filed in the application or claims process, including valuable details such as birth date, birth place, and parents’ names. Unless the deceased would be at least 75 years old today, the parents' names are not published. You will not find everybody who is listed in the SSDI, as criteria for inclusion differs.

If you find your ancestor in the SSDI index, you can order a copy of their original Social Security application (SS-5). If you can prove the individual has died (by sending an obituary or copy of their cemetery headstone), the application will also give the deceased's parents' names, if listed. Notice that this example of an indexed Social Security gives the names of Roy Augustine Lett's parents and his birth date and place.

Indiana Social Security record.png

Obituaries and cemeteries[edit | edit source]

Obituaries[edit | edit source]
Cemeteries[edit | edit source]

NOTE: Each database covers different cemeteries, although some may overlap. Don't be discouraged if you do not locate your individual in the first database. Check each collection.

This example of an online cemetery record is from FindAGrave Indiana Find A Grave.png


Step 5: Search military records: World War I and World War II draft cards.[edit | edit source]

  • There are many different types of military records, some covered in online collections, some microfilmed, and some requiring you to order them from government repositories with a fee. For more information, read the U.S. Military Records Class Handout. Information in military records can vary from a simple lists of name, age, and residence, to more detailed records including name, residence, age, occupation, marital status, birthplace, physical description, number of dependents, pensions received, disabled veterans, needy veterans, widows or orphans of veterans, and other information.

World War I Draft Registration[edit | edit source]

  • One of the most helpful military records is the draft registration of 1917-1918. During three separate registrations, men born between 1873-1897 were required to register in the draft for World War I. Cards may give birth date, birth place, residence, occupation, employer, physical description, next of kin (usually the wife or mother), and number of dependents. Search for your male relatives born in this time period at U.S. WW I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918.
  • Here is an example of a typical draft card.
Indiana WW I draft.png

World War II Draft Registration[edit | edit source]

Likewise, the World War II draft in 1942 may give birth date, birth place, residence, occupation, employer, and other family members as contacts. Search for your male relatives born in this time period at

Indiana WW II draft.png


Other Military Collections for Indiana[edit | edit source]

World War I[edit | edit source]

World War II[edit | edit source]

Korean War, 1950-1953[edit | edit source]

Vietnam War, 1964-1972[edit | edit source]


Step 6: If your ancestor was an immigrant, search immigration and naturalization records online.[edit | edit source]

The census records may show that your ancestor was born in another country. It will be necessary to try to find the town or city they were born in to continue research in the country of origin. Searches of immigration records (usually passenger lists) and naturalization (citizenship) records are the next goal. Immigration refers to people coming into a country, such as the United States, and emigration refers to people leaving a country to go to another. Usually these records are passenger lists of the ships they sailed on. A typical record will show name, age, and country of origin, but in ship lists after 1906 you can find the actual town of birth, the next of kin still living in the old country and their residence, and the names of relatives in the place they are traveling to.

Census clues to Immigration records[edit | edit source]

Census records can provide important clues about nationality and immigration. This chart lists data that can be found in each of the census records. Gather the information in the census records specifically about immigration, as it will help narrow down your search.

Immigration and Naturalization Found in the U.S.Census by Year
(other information also given but is not listed here)
Year of census
Immigration and Naturalization Information
1870
  • Whether father and mother are of foreign birth
1880
  • Place of birth for father and mother
1900
  • Place of birth for father and mother
  • Naturalization status: alien, papers submitted, or naturalized
  • Year of immigration to U.S.
  • How many years lived in U.S.
1910
  • Place of birth for father and mother
  • Naturalization status: alien, papers submitted, or naturalized
  • Year of immigration to U.S.
1920
  • Place of birth for father and mother
  • Naturalization status: alien, papers submitted, or naturalized
  • Year of immigration to U.S.
  • Year of naturalization
  • Native language
  • Native language of father and mother
1930
  • Place of birth for father and mother
  • Naturalization status: alien, papers submitted, or naturalized
  • Year of immigration to U.S.
  • Native language
1940
  • Naturalization status: alien, papers submitted, or naturalized

Immigration records[edit | edit source]

There are many immigration records available. Click here to see a complete list of available immigration records online. Notice that they are listed by state, but under the letter "U" there is a long list of records that cover all of the United States. Unless family information tells you the port where family arrived, you will need to search all of the United States Immigration Online Genealogy Records for the time period when your ancestors arrived.

The United States kept copies of passenger lists starting in 1820 (except for Philadelphia which start in 1800). Passenger lists before this date are taken from shipping companies or extracted from newspapers or other records and are not complete for the time period.

In this example of a passenger list, you see at #22, the family of Eduard Hepper of Gross Liebenthal travelling to Java, South Daokta.

Naturalization (Citizenship) Records[edit | edit source]

Naturalization is the process of becoming a citizen. Records can include the immigrant's declaration of intent to become a citizen, petitions for citizenship, and final certificate of naturalization. Naturalization records after 1906 can show birth date and place, spouse's name, marriage date and place, and lists of children with their birth dates. Click here to view examples of declaration of intent records and the information they give.

Indiana naturalization records could be recorded at the county court or the Federal District or Circuit Court. You must look for them in both locations. Try searching first in any county where the person lived, unless the census tells you the year they were naturalized, and you have evidence of where they lived that year. If you cannot locate them in the county records, try searching for them in the Federal courts.

Indiana Naturalization and Citizenship Online Records[edit | edit source]

Here are the naturalization records available from the Indiana Digital Archives for the surname Humbert (Louise Humbert Main's possible immigrant ancestors). We would want to order the full original files listed in this index. See How do I order copies of records from the Indiana State Archives?



Indiana Naturalization index.png


Step 7: Study each record for other possible searches.[edit | edit source]

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You can now go through a process of working back and forth between all the different record types. Most researchers find clues in the census records that alert them to new certificates to obtain. The certificates then give them ideas of new facts to look for in the census. For example, when a marriage certificate gives you a wife's maiden name, you will then want to look for her in earlier censuses listed with her family as a child. When the census shows you her parents' names, you may then search for their death records. The death records might show their patents' names and take you back to the census to search for them. A naturalization record listing children's names might lead you back to birth certificate searches, and so on.

Using the families we have been studying, here are some new searches to make based on the new information we have gathered:

  • We now know that Louise Humbert Main was the daughter of Justin Humbert and Julia Minott. We can go back to all these record, this time looking for them. We would move into even earlier census records--1880, 1870, and 1860. Having found them in the census records, we would then revisit all the other record groups again, this time looking for Justin, Julia, their children, and even their parents.
  • We would start following Clarence W, Main, father of john G., back into earlier census records also--1880, 1870, 1860.Having found them in the census records, we would then revisit all the other record groups again, this time looking for Clarence, Susan, their children, and their parents.
  • Similar searches for the families of Susan Alexander, Gustave Lett, and Eva Mt Combs would continue expanding the pedigrees of their families.