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England Languages

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Most records used in English research are in English. They may, however, be difficult to read because of the use of Latin words or different handwriting styles or because of changes in the spelling or meaning of words.
== Palaeography ==
Handwriting styles have changed over time. In early records the handwriting is quite different from what it is today. You may want to study some of the sources available for help in reading the old handwriting.
**Before 1900 spelling was not standardized. <br>**Family and place-names were often spelled as they sounded. <br>
**Given names were often abbreviated.
**The meanings of many English words changed over time. <br>
'''Handwriting Aids'''
The following resources may help you learn to read old records.[http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/palaeography/ '''<br>''']
[http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/palaeography/ '''Palaeography: reading old handwriting 1500-1800 A practical online tutorial.''']
Gardner, David E., and Frank Smith. ''Genealogical Research in England and Wales''. Volume 3. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA: Bookcraft Publishers, 1956–64. (FHL book 929.142 G172g. BYU&nbsp;Family History LIbrary book '''CS 414 .G3 1956 vol.1'''.) Volume three contains a list of Latin words and names and handwriting samples.
McLaughlin, Eve. ''Reading Old Handwriting''. Second Edition. Birmingham, England: Federation of Family History Societies Publications, Limited, 1987. (FHL book 417.7 M222.BYU Family History Library book '''Z 115 .M35x 2007.''') This is a basic explanation of techniques for reading old handwriting.
Petti, Anthony G. ''English Literary Hands from Chaucer to Dryden.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977. (FHL 942 G3p. BYU&nbsp;Harold B Lee Library book '''Z 115 .E5 P47'''.) This book gives a background and explanation of handwriting with samples from records.
== Language Aids ==
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