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Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the ''[[Portal:United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. There is no war fought by the America|United States in which the &nbsp;]] &gt; [[African American soldier did not participate. Research|African American military history is marked by feats throughout several conflicts in American HistoryResearch&nbsp;]] &gt; as African American soldiers had fought in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Civil War, the Spanish American War, the World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the current War in Iraq.Military Records''<br>
=== Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. There is no war fought by the United States in which the African American soldier did not participate. African American military history is marked by feats throughout several conflicts in American History; as African American soldiers had fought in the Revolutionary War ===, the War of 1812, the Civil War, the Spanish American War, the World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, and the current War in Iraq.
African-Americans, slaves and free blacks, served on both sides during the war. Black soldiers served in northern militias from the outset, but this was forbidden in the South, where slave-owners feared arming slaves. Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, issued an emancipation proclamation in November 1775, promising freedom to runaway slaves who fought for the British; Sir Henry Clinton issued a similar edict in New York in 1779. Tens of thousands of slaves escaped to the British lines, although possibly as few as 1,000 served under arms. Many of the rest served as orderlies, mechanics, laborers, servants, scouts and guides, although more than half died in smallpox epidemics that swept the British forces, and many were driven out of the British lines when food ran low. Despite Dunmore's promises, the majority were not given their freedom. Many Black Loyalists descendants now live in Canada.=== Revolutionary War ===
In responseAfrican-Americans, slaves and because of manpower shortagesfree blacks, Washington lifted served on both sides during the ban on black enlistment war. Black soldiers served in northern militias from the Continental Army outset, but this was forbidden in January 1776the South, where slave-owners feared arming slaves. All-black units were formed Lord Dunmore, the Royal Governor of Virginia, issued an emancipation proclamation in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many were November 1775, promising freedom to runaway slaves promised freedom who fought for serving the British; Sir Henry Clinton issued a similar edict in lieu New York in 1779. Tens of their masters; another all-black unit came from Haiti with French thousands of slaves escaped to the British lines, although possibly as few as 1,000 served under arms. Many of the rest served as orderlies, mechanics, laborers, servants, scouts and guides, although more than half died in smallpox epidemics that swept the British forces, and many were driven out of the British lines when food ran low. At least 5Despite Dunmore's promises,000 black soldiers fought as Revolutionariesthe majority were not given their freedom. Many Black Loyalists descendants now live in Canada.
Peter Salem In response, and Salem Poor are because of manpower shortages, Washington lifted the ban on black enlistment in the most noted Continental Army in January 1776. All-black units were formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; many were slaves promised freedom for serving in lieu of the American Patriots during this eratheir masters; another all-black unit came from Haiti with French forces. At least 5,000 black soldiers fought as Revolutionaries.
=== Civil War ===Peter Salem and Salem Poor are the most noted of the American Patriots during this era.
The history of African Americans in the U.S. === Civil War is marked by 180,000 African Americans comprising 163 units served in the Union Army during the Civil War, and many more African Americans served in the Union Navy. Both free African Americans and runaway slaves joined the fight. Substantially smaller numbers of blacks are recorded to have served on the Confederate side including two units formed in Richmond, Virginia in 1865, however records are scarce and an exact number is not known. ===
On July 17, 1862, Congress passed two acts allowing the enlistment The history of African Americansin the U.S. Civil War is marked by 180, but official enrollment occurred only after 000 African Americans comprising 163 units served in the September 1862 issuance of Union Army during the Civil War, and many more African Americans served in the Emancipation ProclamationUnion Navy. However, state Both free African Americans and local militia units had already begun enlisting runaway slaves joined the fight. Substantially smaller numbers of blacks, are recorded to have served on the Confederate side including the Black Brigade of Cincinnatitwo units formed in Richmond, raised Virginia in September to help provide manpower to thwart a feared Confederate raid on Cincinnati1865, however records are scarce and an exact number is not known.
In generalOn July 17, white soldiers and officers believed that black men lacked the ability to fight and fight well. In October 1862, Congress passed two acts allowing the enlistment of African American soldiers Americans, but official enrollment occurred only after the September 1862 issuance of the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers silenced their critics by repulsing attacking Confederates at the Battle of Island Mound, MissouriEmancipation Proclamation. By AugustHowever, 1863state and local militia units had already begun enlisting blacks, 14 Negro Regiments were in the field and ready for service. At including the Battle Black Brigade of Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 27, 1863Cincinnati, the African American soldiers bravely advanced over open ground raised in the face of deadly artillery fire. Although the attack failed, the black soldiers proved their capability September to help provide manpower to withstand the heat of battlethwart a feared Confederate raid on Cincinnati.
On July 17In general, 1863, at Honey Springs, Indian Territory, now Oklahomawhite soldiers and officers believed that black men lacked the ability to fight and fight well. In October 1862, African American soldiers of the 1st Kansas Colored fought with courage againVolunteers silenced their critics by repulsing attacking Confederates at the Battle of Island Mound, Missouri. Union troops under General James G. Blunt ran into a strong Confederate force under General Douglas H. Cooper. After a two-hour bloody engagementBy August, 1863, Cooper's soldiers retreated14 Negro Regiments were in the field and ready for service. The 1st Kansas, which had held At the center Battle of Port Hudson, Louisiana, May 27, 1863, the Union line, African American soldiers bravely advanced to within fifty paces over open ground in the face of the Confederate line and exchanged deadly artillery fire for some twenty minutes until the Confederates broke and ran. General Blunt wrote after Although the battleattack failed, "I never saw such fighting as was done by the Negro regiment....The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my commandblack soldiers proved their capability to withstand the heat of battle."
The most widely known battle fought by African Americans was the assault on Fort WagnerOn July 17, 1863, at Honey Springs, Indian Territory, South Carolinanow Oklahoma, by the 54th MassachusettsInfantry on July 181st Kansas Colored fought with courage again. Union troops under General James G. Blunt ran into a strong Confederate force under General Douglas H. Cooper. After a two-hour bloody engagement, 1863Cooper's soldiers retreated. The 54th volunteered to lead 1st Kansas, which had held the assault on center of the strongly-fortified Confederate positions. The soldiers Union line, advanced to within fifty paces of the 54th scaled Confederate line and exchanged fire for some twenty minutes until the fort's parapet, Confederates broke and were only driven back ran. General Blunt wrote after brutal hand-to-hand combat. Despite the defeatbattle, the unit "I never saw such fighting as was hailed for its valor which spurred further African-American recruitment, giving done by the Union a numerical military advantage from a population the Confederacy did not dare exploit Negro regiment....The question that negroes will fight is settled; besides they make better solders in that fashion until the closing days of the warevery respect than any troops I have ever had under my command."
Although black soldiers proved themselves as reputable soldiersThe most widely known battle fought by African Americans was the assault on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, by the 54th MassachusettsInfantry on July 18, discrimination in pay and other areas remained widespread1863. According The 54th volunteered to lead the Militia Act assault on the strongly-fortified Confederate positions. The soldiers of 1862the 54th scaled the fort's parapet, soldiers of African descent and were only driven back after brutal hand-to receive $10-hand combat.00 a monthDespite the defeat, plus a clothing allowance of $3.50. Many regiments struggled the unit was hailed for equal payits valor which spurred further African-American recruitment, some refusing any money giving the Union a numerical military advantage from a population the Confederacy did not dare exploit in that fashion until June 15, 1864, when Congress granted equal pay for all black soldiersthe closing days of the war.
African American Although black soldiers proved themselves as reputable soldiers participated , discrimination in every major campaign of 1864–65 except Sherman's Atlanta Campaign in Georgiapay and other areas remained widespread. The year 1864 was especially eventful for African American troops. On April 12, 1864, at Battle According to the Militia Act of Fort Pillow, Tennessee, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led his 2,500 men against the Union-held fortification1862, occupied by 292 black and 285 white soldiersof African descent were to receive $10. After driving in the Union pickets and giving the garrison an opportunity to surrender00 a month, Forrest's men swarmed into the fort with little difficulty and drove the Federals down the river's bluff into plus a deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and only sixty-two clothing allowance of the U.S$3. Colored Troops survived the fight50. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of regiments struggled for equal pay, some refusing any money until June 15, 1864, when Congress granted equal pay for all black troops, and the controversy continues todaysoldiers. The battle cry for the Negro soldier east of the Mississippi River became "Remember Fort Pillow!"
African American soldiers participated in every major campaign of 1864–65 except Sherman's Atlanta Campaign in Georgia. The propaganda which sprang from the allegations of a "massacre" at Fort Pillow year 1864 was useful in convincing United States Colored Troops to become suicide forces which entered battle shouting "No quarter! No quarter!especially eventful for African American troops. On April 12, 1864," never surrendered and who themselves perpetrated murders at Battle of surrendered Confederate forces in Florida and at Fort BlakleyPillow, AlabamaTennessee, on April 9Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led his 2, 1865500 men against the Union-held fortification, at which battle they also shot two occupied by 292 black and 285 white soldiers. After driving in the Union officers who tried pickets and giving the garrison an opportunity to stop themsurrender, killing oneForrest's men swarmed into the fort with little difficulty and drove the Federals down the river's bluff into a deadly crossfire. Casualties were high and only sixty-two of the U.S.Colored Troops survived the fight. Many accused the Confederates of perpetrating a massacre of black troops, and the controversy continues today. The battle cry for the Negro soldier east of the Mississippi River became "Remember Fort Pillow!"
An 1864 investigation The propaganda which sprang from the allegations of a "massacre" at Fort Pillow engaged was useful in wholesale fabrication of convincing United States Colored Troops to become suicide forces which entered battle shouting "evidenceNo quarter! No quarter!," never surrendered and included assertions that Black women who themselves perpetrated murders of surrendered Confederate forces in Florida and children had been murdered by Forrest's forces when there were no women or children present at Fort Pillow. A later 1871 Congressional investigation conducted during Reconstruction by Radical Republicans concluded that there was no evidence of a "massacre" and stated that there were "isolated incidents along the riverbank" Blakley, Alabama, on April 9, 1865, at which Forrest stopped immediately upon his arrivalbattle they also shot two white Union officers who tried to stop them, killing one.
The barracks An 1864 investigation of Fort Pillow engaged in wholesale fabrication of "evidence" and included assertions that Black women and children had been murdered by Forrest's men forces when there were accused no women or children present at Fort Pillow. A later 1871 Congressional investigation conducted during Reconstruction by Radical Republicans concluded that there was no evidence of burning were actually burned under orders by a Union officer. Lieutenant Daniel Van Horn, Sixth U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery, whose report is contained in the Federal Official Records, documented "massacre" and stated that Lieutenant John D. Hill, U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery, set fire to there were "isolated incidents along the barracks under orders of the Union commanding officerriverbank" which Forrest stopped immediately upon his arrival.
The barracks Forrest took 39 United States 's men were accused of burning were actually burned under orders by a Union officer. Lieutenant Daniel Van Horn, Sixth U.S. Colored Troops (USCT) as POWs and sent them up Heavy Artillery, whose report is contained in the chain of commandFederal Official Records, documented that Lieutenant John D. Forrest even transferred the 14 most seriously wounded USCT to the Hill, U.S. Steamer Silver Cloud where they could get better care than that which he could provideColored Heavy Artillery, set fire to the barracks under orders of the Union commanding officer.
Allegations Forrest took 39 United States Colored Troops (USCT) as POWs and sent them up the chain of a "massacre" continue command. Forrest even transferred the 14 most seriously wounded USCT to be controversial because historians remain either willfully or blissfully unaware of the Federal Official Records and the 1871 Congressional investigation conclusionU.S. Steamer Silver Cloud where they could get better care than that which he could provide.
Christian Fleetwood at The Battle Allegations of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia became one of the most heroic engagements involving African Americans. On September 29, 1864, the African American division a "massacre" continue to be controversial because historians remain either willfully or blissfully unaware of the Eighteenth Corps, after being pinned down by Confederate artillery fire for about 30 minutes, charged the earthworks Federal Official Records and rushed up the slopes of the heights. During the hour-long engagement the division suffered tremendous casualties. Of the twenty-five African Americans who were awarded the Medal of Honor during the Civil War, fourteen received the honor as a result of their actions at Chaffin's Farm1871 Congressional investigation conclusion.
Soldiers who fought in Christian Fleetwood at The Battle of Chaffin's Farm, Virginia became one of the most heroic engagements involving African Americans. On September 29, 1864, the African American division of the Eighteenth Corps, after being pinned down by Confederate artillery fire for about 30 minutes, charged the earthworks and rushed up the Army slopes of the James heights. During the hour-long engagement the division suffered tremendous casualties. Of the twenty-five African Americans who were eligible for awarded the Butler Medalof Honor during the Civil War, commissioned by that armyfourteen received the honor as a result of their actions at Chaffin's commander, Benjamin ButlerFarm.
In actual numbers, African American soldiers comprised 10 percent Soldiers who fought in the Army of the entire Union Army. Losses among African Americans James were higheligible for the Butler Medal, and from all reported casualtiescommissioned by that army's commander, approximately one-third of all African Americans enrolled in the military lost their lives during the Civil WarBenjamin Butler.
BlacksIn actual numbers, African American soldiers comprised 10 percent of the entire Union Army. Losses among African Americans were high, both slave and freefrom all reported casualties, were also heavily involved approximately one-third of all African Americans enrolled in assisting the Union in matters of intelligence, and military lost their contributions were labelled Black Dispatcheslives during the Civil War.
'''Confederate States Army'''Blacks, both slave and free, were also heavily involved in assisting the Union in matters of intelligence, and their contributions were labelled Black Dispatches.
Because of the controversial nature of the subject the debate over how many African Americans served in '''Confederate uniform, and how many of them served willingly and without coercion is contentious. One estimate by Ed Smith of American University suggests that between 60,000 and 93,000 blacks, both slave and free, served in the Confederate military in some capacity; however, the vast majority of these were likely teamsters, cooks, musicians, and hospital attendants.States Army'''
"Almost fifty years before Because of the (Civil) Warcontroversial nature of the subject the debate over how many African Americans served in Confederate uniform, the South was already enlisting and utilizing Black manpower, including Black commissioned officers, for the defense how many of their respective statesthem served willingly and without coercion is contentious. ThereforeOne estimate by Ed Smith of American University suggests that between 60, the fact that Free 000 and 93,000 blacks, both slave Black Southerners and free, served and fought for their states in the Confederacy cannot be considered an unusual instanceConfederate military in some capacity; however, rather continuation the vast majority of an established practice with verifiable historical precedence." - ''The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell''these were likely teamsters, cooks, by Lt. Col (retired) Michael Lee Lanningmusicians, Birch Lane Press (June 1997)and hospital attendants.
There were many recorded instances of combat service of Black Confederates which can be found in "Almost fifty years before the Federal Official Records(Civil) War, Northern and Southern newspapers the South was already enlisting and utilizing Black manpower, including Black commissioned officers, for the letters and diaries defense of soldiers from both sidestheir respective states. In addition there are recorded instances of Therefore, the fact that Free and slave Black Southerners serving as regularly-enlisted combat soldiers before served and fought for their states in the Union allowed enlistment Confederacy cannot be considered an unusual instance, rather continuation of Blacksan established practice with verifiable historical precedence." - ''The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell'', by Lt. Col (retired) Michael Lee Lanning, Birch Lane Press (June 1997).
Elgin (Illinois) Daily Courier-News, Monday, April 12, 1948 - "Robert (Uncle Bob) Wilson, Negro veteran There were many recorded instances of combat service of Black Confederates which can be found in the Confederate army who observed his 112th birthday last January 13Federal Official Records, died early yesterday morning in Northern and Southern newspapers and the veterans' hospital at the Elgin State hospitalletters and diaries of soldiers from both sides....He In addition there are recorded instances of Black Southerners serving as regularly-enlisted as a private in Company H of combat soldiers before the 16th regiment Union allowed enlistment of Virginia Infantry on Oct. 9, 1862 and discharged May 31, 1863Blacks."
For most Elgin (Illinois) Daily Courier-News, Monday, April 12, 1948 - "Robert (Uncle Bob) Wilson, Negro veteran of the war Confederate army who observed his 112th birthday last January 13, died early yesterday morning in the Confederate Government prohibited veterans' hospital at the enlistment of African Americans Elgin State hospital....He enlisted as armed soldiers a private in Company H of the national army16th regiment of Virginia Infantry on Oct. 9, but the states 1862 and individual units often varied from or ignored outright such prohibitions since there were actually very few "national armydischarged May 31, 1863." regiments at any time during the war with most military units still under state command on loan to the Confederate government.
The keywords in discussing "official For most of the war the Confederate policy" regarding Black Government prohibited the enlistment of African Americans as armed soldiers are in the national army, but the states and individual units often varied from or ignored outright such prohibitions since there were actually very few "national army." States regiments at any time during the war with most military units still controlled their military policies within under state command on loan to the Confederate command structure but, unlike the Union, did not surrender total control of their forces as part of a "national armygovernment."
The keywords in discussing "official Confederate Congress authorized salaries for black musicians in 1862, stating policy"whenever colored persons regarding Black soldiers are employed as musicians in any regiment or company"national army." States still controlled their military policies within the Confederate command structure but, they shall be entitled to unlike the same pay now allowed by law to musicians regularly enlistedUnion, did not surrender total control of their forces as part of a "national army."
Some individual states The Confederate Congress authorized salaries for black musicians in the Confederacy permitted free blacks to enlist as soldiers in their state militias continuing a longstanding tradition. The first to do so was Tennessee, which passed a law on June 211862, 1861 authorizing the recruitment of state militia units composed of stating "free whenever colored persons of color" between the ages of 15 and 50. Louisiana, which had a sizable free black populationare employed as musicians in any regiment or company, followed suit and assembled the all-black 1st Louisiana Native Guard. This regiment was later forced they shall be entitled to disband in February, 1862 when the state legislature passed a same pay now allowed by law in January, 1862, that reorganized the militia by conscripting to musicians regularly enlisted."all the free white males capable of bearing arms… irrespective of nationality".
Captured Union African-American Some individual states in the Confederacy permitted free blacks to enlist as soldiers, however, were not treated with equality by Confederate troops as white troopsin their state militias continuing a longstanding tradition. It is a popularly held folk legend unsupported by documentation that those who were captured were summarily put The first to death along with any white Union officers who were captured having led them into battle - this do so was Tennessee, which passed a policy statedlaw on June 21, but not put into practice1861 authorizing the recruitment of state militia units composed of "free persons of color" between the ages of 15 and 50. Louisiana, by which had a sizable free black population, followed suit and assembled the Confederacyall-black 1st Louisiana Native Guard. In realityThis regiment was later forced to disband in February, Black Union soldiers who were captured were treated as runaway slaves and1862 when the state legislature passed a law in January, if their owners could be located1862, returned to them. If that reorganized the owners could not be located they were put to work to support militia by conscripting "all the Confederate war effortfree white males capable of bearing arms… irrespective of nationality".
Alabama authorized Captured Union African-American soldiers, however, were not treated with equality by Confederate troops as white troops. It is a popularly held folk legend unsupported by documentation that those who were captured were summarily put to death along with any white Union officers who were captured having led them into battle - this was a policy stated, but not put into practice, by the enlistment of "mixed blood" creoles in 1862 for a state militia unit in MobileConfederacy. In reality, Black Union soldiers who were captured were treated as runaway slaves and, if their owners could be located, returned to them. If the owners could not be located they were put to work to support the Confederate war effort.
Black Southerners served as combat soldiers often with some Alabama authorized the enlistment of the most celebrated and feared Confederate commands and commanders:"mixed blood" creoles in 1862 for a state militia unit in Mobile.
Federal Official Records, Series I, Vol XVI Part I, pg. 805, Lt. Col. Parkhurst's Report (Ninth Michigan Infantry) on General Forrest's attack at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 13, 1862: "The forces attacking my camp were the First Regiment Texas Rangers [8th Texas Cavalry, Terry's Texas Rangers, ed.], Colonel Wharton, and a battalion Black Southerners served as combat soldiers often with some of the First Georgia Rangers, Colonel Morrison, most celebrated and a large number of citizens of Rutherford County, many of whom had recently taken the oath of allegiance to the United States Government. There were also many negroes attached to the Texas feared Confederate commands and Georgia troops, who were armed and equipped, and took part in the several engagements with my forces during the day."commanders:
In January 1864Federal Official Records, Series I, Vol XVI Part I, pg. 805, Lt. Col. Parkhurst's Report (Ninth Michigan Infantry) on General Patrick Cleburne Forrest's attack at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 13, 1862: "The forces attacking my camp were the First Regiment Texas Rangers [8th Texas Cavalry, Terry's Texas Rangers, ed.], Colonel Wharton, and several other Confederate officers in a battalion of the Army First Georgia Rangers, Colonel Morrison, and a large number of citizens of Rutherford County, many of whom had recently taken the Tennessee proposed using slaves as soldiers in oath of allegiance to the national army since United States Government. There were also many negroes attached to the Union was using black Texas and Georgia troops. Cleburne recommended offering slaves their freedom if they fought , who were armed and survived. Confederate President Jefferson Davis refused to consider Cleburne's proposal equipped, and forbade further discussion of took part in the several engagements with my forces during the ideaday."
The conceptIn January 1864, however, did not die. By General Patrick Cleburne and several other Confederate officers in the fall Army of 1864, the South was losing more and more ground, and some believed that only by arming Tennessee proposed using slaves as soldiers in the slaves could defeat be averted. On January 11, 1865 General Robert E. Lee wrote national army since the Confederate Congress urging them to arm and enlist Union was using black troops. Cleburne recommended offering slaves in exchange for their freedomif they fought and survived. On March 13, the Confederate Congress passed General Order 14, and President Jefferson Davis signed the order into law. The order was issued March 23, 1865, but only a few African American companies were raised. Two companies were armed refused to consider Cleburne's proposal and drilled in the streets forbade further discussion of Richmond, Virginia shortly before the besieged southern capital fellidea.
Despite popular legendThe concept, there is documentary evidence however, did not die. By the fall of 1864, the South was losing more and more ground, and some believed that they did see limited combat service:only by arming the slaves could defeat be averted. On January 11, 1865 General Robert E. Lee wrote the Confederate Congress urging them to arm and enlist black slaves in exchange for their freedom. On March 13, the Confederate Congress passed General Order 14, and President Davis signed the order into law. The order was issued March 23, 1865, but only a few African American companies were raised. Two companies were armed and drilled in the streets of Richmond, Virginia shortly before the besieged southern capital fell.
Richmond SentinelDespite popular legend, March 21, 1865 - "THE BATTALION from Camps Winder and Jackson, under the command of Dr. Chambliss, including the company of colored troops under Captain Grimes, will parade on the square on Wednesday evening, at 4 o’clock. This there is the first company of negro troops raised in Virginia. It was organized about a month since, by Dr. Chambliss, from the employees of the hospitals, and served on the lines during the recent Sheridan raid. "documentary evidence that they did see limited combat service:
One Richmond Sentinel, March 21, 1865 - "THE BATTALION from Camps Winder and Jackson, under the command of Dr. Chambliss, including the units accompanied General Lee's retreat toward Appomattox and fought company of colored troops under Captain Grimes, will parade on the square on Wednesday evening, at 4 o’clock. This is the battle first company of Amelianegro troops raised in Virginia. It was organized about a month since, by Dr. Chambliss, from the employees of the hospitals, Virginia two days before Lee's surrenderand served on the lines during the recent Sheridan raid."
=== Indian Wars ===One of the units accompanied General Lee's retreat toward Appomattox and fought at the battle of Amelia, Virginia two days before Lee's surrender.
From the 1870s to the early 20th Century, African American units were utilized by the United States Government to combat the Native Americans during the === Indian Wars. Perhaps the most noted among this group were the Buffalo Soldiers. ===
At From the end of 1870s to the U.S. Civil War early 20th Century, African American units were utilized by the army reorganized and authorized United States Government to combat the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with Native Americans during the designations 9th and 10th UIndian Wars. S. Cavalry. Two regiments of infantry Perhaps the most noted among this group were formed at the same time. These units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by white officers such as Benjamin Grierson, and, occasionally, an African-American officer such as Henry O. FlipperBuffalo Soldiers.
From 1866 to At the early-1890s these end of the U.S. Civil War the army reorganized and authorized the formation of two regiments served at a variety of posts in black cavalry with the southwest United States designations 9th and Great Plains regions10th U. During this period they participated in most S. Cavalry. Two regiments of infantry were formed at the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished recordsame time. Thirteen These units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by white officers such as Benjamin Grierson, and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.Soccasionally, an African-American officer such as Henry O. mailFlipper.
=== Spanish American War ===From 1866 to the early-1890s these regiments served at a variety of posts in the southwest United States and Great Plains regions. During this period they participated in most of the military campaigns in these areas and earned a distinguished record. Thirteen enlisted men and six officers from these four regiments earned the Medal of Honor during the Indian Wars. In addition to the military campaigns, the "Buffalo Soldiers" served a variety of roles along the frontier from building roads to escorting the U.S. mail.
Segregated company during the === Spanish-American WarAfter the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill), where five more Medals of Honor were earned. They took part in the 1916 Punitive Expedition into Mexico and in the Philippine-American War. ===
'''Units'''Segregated company during the Spanish-American WarAfter the Indian Wars ended in the 1890s, the regiments continued to serve and participated in the Spanish-American War (including the Battle of San Juan Hill), where five more Medals of Honor were earned. They took part in the 1916 Punitive Expedition into Mexico and in the Philippine-American War.
In addition to the African Americans who served in Regular Amy units during the Spanish American War, five African American Volunteer Army units and seven African American National Guard units also served.'''Units'''
In addition to the African Americans who served in Regular Amy units during the Spanish American War, five African American Volunteer Army:units and seven African American National Guard units also served.
* 7th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 8th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 9th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 10th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 11th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)Army:
National Guard:*7th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *8th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *9th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *10th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *11th United States Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)
* 3rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 8th Illinois Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* Companies A and B, 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 23rd Kansas Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 3rd North Carolina Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)* 6th Virginia Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)National Guard:
Of these units, only the 9th U.S., *3rd Alabama Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *8th IllinoisVolunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *Companies A and B, and 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *23rd Kansas served outside the United States during the war. All three units served in Cuba and suffered no losses to combat.Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *3rd North Carolina Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *9th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops) *6th Virginia Volunteer Infantry (Colored Troops)
=== World War I ===Of these units, only the 9th U.S., 8th Illinois, and 23rd Kansas served outside the United States during the war. All three units served in Cuba and suffered no losses to combat.
Officers of the 366th Infantry Regiment returning home from WWI service.The U.S. armed forces remained segregated through === World War I. Still, many African Americans eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war. By the time of the armistice with Germany on November 1918, over 350,000 African Americans had served with the American Expeditionary Force in on the Western Front. ===
Most African American units were largely relegated to support roles and saw little combatOfficers of the 366th Infantry Regiment returning home from WWI service.The U.S. armed forces remained segregated through World War I. Still, many African Americans played a major role in eagerly volunteered to join the Allied cause following America's entry into the war effort. One By the time of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regimentarmistice with Germany on November 1918, known as the "Harlem Helfightersover 350," which was on 000 African Americans had served with the front lines for six months, longer then any other African American regiment Expeditionary Force in on the war. One hundred seventy-one members of the 396th were awarded the Legion of MeritWestern Front.
Corporal Freddie Stowers of the 371st Infantry Regiment was posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor—the only Most African American units were largely relegated to be so honored for actions in World War Isupport roles and saw little combat. During action Still, African Americans played a major role in France, Stowers had led an assault on German trenches, continuing to lead and encourage his men even after being twice woundedAmerica's war effort. Stowers died from his woundsOne of the most distinguished units was the 369th Infantry Regiment, but his men continued known as the fight and eventually defeated "Harlem Helfighters," which was on the German troops. Stowers was recommended front lines for six months, longer then any other African American regiment in the Medal war. One hundred seventy-one members of Honor shortly after his death, but the nomination was, according to 396th were awarded the Army, misplacedLegion of Merit.
Many, believing that Corporal Freddie Stowers of the recommendation 371st Infantry Regiment was intentionally ignored due posthumously awarded a Medal of Honor—the only African American to institutional racism be so honored for actions in the Armed ForcesWorld War I. In 1990During action in France, under from CongressStowers had led an assault on German trenches, the Department of the Army launched an investigationcontinuing to lead and encourage his men even after being twice wounded. Based on findings Stowers died from this investigationhis wounds, but his men continued the Army Decorations Board approved fight and eventually defeated the award of the Medal of Honor to German troops. Stowers. On April 24, 1991—73 years after he was killed in action—Stowers' two surviving sisters received recommended for the Medal of Honor from President George H.W. Bush at shortly after his death, but the White House. The success of the investigation leading nomination was, according to Stowers' Medal of Honor later sparked a similar review that resulted in seven African Americans being awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in World War IIArmy, misplaced.
Many, believing that the recommendation was intentionally ignored due to institutional racism in the Armed Forces. In 1990, under from Congress, the Department of the Army launched an investigation. Based on findings from this investigation, the Army Decorations Board approved the award of the Medal of Honor to Stowers. On April 24, 1991—73 years after he was killed in action—Stowers'two surviving sisters received the Medal of Honor from President George H.W. Bush at the White House. The success of the investigation leading to Stowers''Units'''Medal of Honor later sparked a similar review that resulted in seven African Americans being awarded the Medal of Honor for actions in World War II.
Some of the most notable African American units which served in World War I were:'''Units'''
* 92nd Infantry Division* 366th Infantry Regiment* 93d Infantry Division* 369th Infantry Regiment (Harlem Hellfighters)* 371st Infantry RegimentSome of the most notable African American units which served in World War I were:
'''Second Italo-Abyssinian War'''*92nd Infantry Division *366th Infantry Regiment *93d Infantry Division *369th Infantry Regiment (Harlem Hellfighters) *371st Infantry Regiment
On October 4, 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia. African'''Second Italo-Americans organized to raise money for medical supplies, and many volunteered to fight for the African kingdom.[1] Within eight months however, it would be overpowered by the advanced weaponry and mustard gas of the Italian forces.Abyssinian War'''
Many years later Haile Selassie I would comment on the efforts: "We can never forget the help On October 4, 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia received from Negro . African-Americans during organized to raise money for medical supplies, and many volunteered to fight for the crisisAfrican kingdom...It moved me to know that Americans of African descent did not abandon their embattled brothers[1] Within eight months however, but stood it would be overpowered by usthe advanced weaponry and mustard gas of the Italian forces."
'''Spanish Civil War'''Many years later Haile Selassie I would comment on the efforts: "We can never forget the help Ethiopia received from Negro Americans during the crisis...It moved me to know that Americans of African descent did not abandon their embattled brothers, but stood by us."
African-American activist and World War I veteran Oliver Law, fighting in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the '''Spanish Civil War, is believed to have been the first African-American officer to command white American troops.'''
=== African-American activist and World War II ===I veteran Oliver Law, fighting in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, is believed to have been the first African-American officer to command white American troops.
Despite a high enlistment rate in the U.S. Army, African Americans were not treated equally. Racial tensions existed. At parades, church services, in transportation and canteens the races were kept separate.=== World War II ===
Many soldiers of color served their country with distinction during World War II. Famous segregated units, such as Despite a high enlistment rate in the Tuskegee Airmen and U.S. 761st Tank Battalion proved their value in combatArmy, leading to desegregation of all UAfrican Americans were not treated equally.SRacial tensions existed. Armed Forces by order of President Harry S. Truman At parades, church services, in July of 1948 via Executive Order 9981transportation and canteens the races were kept separate.
Benjamin OMany soldiers of color served their country with distinction during World War II. DavisFamous segregated units, Jr. served such as commander of the famed Tuskegee Airmen during the Warand U.S. He later went on 761st Tank Battalion proved their value in combat, leading to become the first African American general in the United States Air Forcedesegregation of all U. His father, Benjamin OS. Davis, SrArmed Forces by order of President Harry S., had been the first African American Brigadier General Truman in the Army (1940)July of 1948 via Executive Order 9981.
Doris MillerBenjamin O. Davis, a Navy mess attendant, was Jr. served as commander of the famed Tuskegee Airmen during the War. He later went on to become the first African American recipient of general in the Navy CrossUnited States Air Force. His father, Benjamin O. Davis, awarded for his actions during the attack on Pearl HarborSr. Miller , had voluntarily manned an anti-aircraft gun and fired at been the Japanese aircraft, despite having no prior training first African American Brigadier General in the weapon's useArmy (1940).
In 1944Doris Miller, a Navy mess attendant, was the Golden Thirteen became first African American recipient of the NavyCross, awarded for his actions during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Miller had voluntarily manned an anti-aircraft gun and fired at the Japanese aircraft, despite having no prior training in the weapon's first African American commissioned officersuse.
In 19451944, Frederick C. Branch the Golden Thirteen became the Navy's first African-American United States Marine Corps officercommissioned officers.
'''Units'''In 1945, Frederick C. Branch became the first African-American United States Marine Corps officer.
Some of the most notable African American Army units which served in World War II were:'''Units'''
* 92nd Infantry Division* U.S. 366th Infantry Regiment* 93d Infantry Division* 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion* 761st Tank Battalion* 332d Fighter Group (Tuskegee Airmen)* 614th Tank Destroyer BattalionSome of the most notable African American Army units which served in World War II were:
Two segregated units were organized by the United States Marine Corps:*92nd Infantry Division *U.S. 366th Infantry Regiment *93d Infantry Division *555th Parachute Infantry Battalion *761st Tank Battalion *332d Fighter Group (Tuskegee Airmen) *614th Tank Destroyer Battalion
* 51st Defense Battalion. (Composite)* 52nd Defense Battalion. (Composite)Two segregated units were organized by the United States Marine Corps:
'''Medal of Honor recipients'''*51st Defense Battalion. (Composite) *52nd Defense Battalion. (Composite)
On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton, in a White House ceremony, awarded the nation's highest military honor — the ''Medal of Honor — to 7 African-American servicemen who had served in World War II.recipients'''
The only living recipient was:On January 13, 1997, President Bill Clinton, in a White House ceremony, awarded the nation's highest military honor — the Medal of Honor — to 7 African-American servicemen who had served in World War II.
* First Lieutenant Vernon Baker.The only living recipient was:
The posthumous recipients were:*First Lieutenant Vernon Baker.
* Major Charles L. Thomas* First Lieutenant John R. Fox* Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers* Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr.* Private First Class Willy F. James, Jr.* Private George WatsonThe posthumous recipients were:
'''Integration of the Armed *Major Charles L. Thomas *First Lieutenant John R. Fox *Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers *Staff Sergeant Edward A. Carter, Jr. *Private First Class Willy F''''''orces'''. James, Jr. *Private George Watson
In 1948, President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the military and mandating equality '''Integration of treatment and opportunity. It also made it illegal, per military law, to make a racist remark. Desegregation of the military was not complete for several years, all-black Army units persisted well into the Korean War.Armed F''''''orces'''
In 19501948, Lieutenant Leon Gilbert of President Truman signed Executive Order 9981 integrating the still-segregated 24th Infantry Regiment was court martialed military and sentenced to death for refusing to obey the orders mandating equality of a white officer while serving in the Korean War. Gilbert maintained that the orders would have meant certain death for himself treatment and the men in his commandopportunity. The case led It also made it illegal, per military law, to world-wide protests and increased attention to segregation and racism in make a racist remark. Desegregation of the U.S. military. Gilbert's sentence was commuted to twenty and later seventeen not complete for several years of imprisonment; he served five years and was released, all-black Army units persisted well into the Korean War.
In 1950, Lieutenant Leon Gilbert of the still-segregated 24th Infantry Regiment was court martialed and sentenced to death for refusing to obey the orders of a white officer while serving in the Korean War. Gilbert maintained that the orders would have meant certain death for himself and the men in his command. The integration commanded by Truman's 1948 Executive Order extended case led to world-wide protests and increased attention to schools segregation and neighborhoods as well as military units. Fifteen years after racism in the Executive Order, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara issued Department of Defense Directive 5120U.36S. "Every military commander," the Directive mandates, "has the responsibility . Gilbert's sentence was commuted to oppose discriminatory practices affecting his men twenty and their dependents later seventeen years of imprisonment; he served five years and to foster equal opportunity for them, not only in areas under his immediate control, but also in nearby communities where they may gather in off-duty hourswas released."
Although the directive was issued in 1963, it was not until 1967 that the first non-The integration commanded by Truman's 1948 Executive Order extended to schools and neighborhoods as well as military establishment was declared off-limitsunits. In 1970 the requirement that commanding officers first obtain permission from Fifteen years after the Executive Order, Secretary of Defense was liftedRobert McNamara issued Department of Defense Directive 5120.36. "Every military commander, " the Directive mandates, "has the responsibility to oppose discriminatory practices affecting his men and their dependents and areas were allowed to be declared housing foster equal opportunity for them, not only in areas under his immediate control, but also in nearby communities where they may gather in off limits to military personnel by their commanding officer-duty hours."
=== Korean War ===Although the directive was issued in 1963, it was not until 1967 that the first non-military establishment was declared off-limits. In 1970 the requirement that commanding officers first obtain permission from the Secretary of Defense was lifted, and areas were allowed to be declared housing areas off limits to military personnel by their commanding officer.
Jesse L. Brown became the U.S. Navy's first black aviator in October 1948. He was killed when his plane was shot down during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in North Korea. He was unable to eject from his crippled F4U Corsair and crash-landed successfully. His injuries and damage to his aircraft prevented him from leaving the plane. A white squadron mate crash-landed his F4U Corsair near Brown and attempted to extricate Brown but could not and Brown died of his injuries. The U.S. Navy honored Jesse Brown by naming an escort ship after him — the U.S.S. Jesse L. Brown.=== Korean War ===
=== Vietnam War ===Jesse L. Brown became the U.S. Navy's first black aviator in October 1948. He was killed when his plane was shot down during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in North Korea. He was unable to eject from his crippled F4U Corsair and crash-landed successfully. His injuries and damage to his aircraft prevented him from leaving the plane. A white squadron mate crash-landed his F4U Corsair near Brown and attempted to extricate Brown but could not and Brown died of his injuries. The U.S. Navy honored Jesse Brown by naming an escort ship after him — the U.S.S. Jesse L. Brown.
The === Vietnam War saw many great accomplishments by many African Americans, including twenty who received the Medal of Honor for their actions. ===
In 1967The Vietnam War saw many great accomplishments by many African Americans, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented including twenty who received the Medal of Honor to U.S. Army Specialist Five Lawrence Joel, for a "very special kind of courage — the unarmed heroism of compassion and service to others." Joel was the first living African American to receive the Medal of Honor since the Mexican–American War. He was a medic who in 1965 saved the lives of U.S. troops under ambush in Vietnam and defied direct orders to stay to the ground, walking through Viet Cong gunfire and tending to the troops despite being shot twice himself. The Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem, North Carolina is dedicated to his honortheir actions.
On August 21In 1967, 1968, with the posthumous award of President Lyndon B. Johnson presented the Medal of Honor, to U.S. Marine James AndersonArmy Specialist Five Lawrence Joel, Jrfor a "very special kind of courage — the unarmed heroism of compassion and service to others. became " Joel was the first living African-American to receive the Medal of Honor since the Mexican–American War. He was a medic who in 1965 saved the lives of U.S. Marine recipient of troops under ambush in Vietnam and defied direct orders to stay to the ground, walking through Viet Cong gunfire and tending to the Medal of Honor for troops despite being shot twice himself. The Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem, North Carolina is dedicated to his heroic actions and sacrifice of lifehonor.
On December 10August 21, 1968, with the posthumous award of the Medal of Honor, U.S. Army Captain Riley Leroy Pitts Marine James Anderson, Jr. became the first African -American commissioned officer to be awarded U.S. Marine recipient of the Medal of Honor. His medal was presented posthumously to for his wife, Mrs. Eula Pitts, by President Lyndon B. Johnsonheroic actions and sacrifice of life.
=== Post-Vietnam On December 10, 1968, U.S. Army Captain Riley Leroy Pitts became the first African American commissioned officer to Present Day ===be awarded the Medal of Honor. His medal was presented posthumously to his wife, Mrs. Eula Pitts, by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
In 1989, President George H. W. Bush appointed Army General Colin Powell to the position of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, making Powell the highest ranking officer in the United States military. Powell was the first, and is so far the only, African American to hold that position. The Chairman serves as the chief military adviser to the President and the Secretary of Defense. During his tenure Powell oversaw the 1989 United States invasion of Panama === Post-Vietnam to oust General Manuel Noriega and the 1990 to 1991 Gulf War against Iraq. General Powell's four-year term as Chairman ended in 1993.Present Day ===
In 1989, President George H. W. Bush appointed Army General William E. "Kip" Ward was officially nominated as Colin Powell to the position of Chairman of the first commander Joint Chiefs of Staff, making Powell the highest ranking officer in the new United States Africa Command on July 10, 2007military. He is currently Deputy CommanderPowell was the first, United States European Command and is so far the active military's only black four-star general, African American to hold that position. According The Chairman serves as the chief military adviser to the Pentagon, Africa Command will help "promote peace President and security the Secretary of Defense. During his tenure Powell oversaw the 1989 United States invasion of Panama to oust General Manuel Noriega and respond the 1990 to crises on the continent1991 Gulf War against Iraq." It will also coordinate military support for other diplomatic and development programsGeneral Powell's four-year term as Chairman ended in 1993.
General William E. "Kip" Ward was officially nominated as the first commander of the new United States Africa Command on July 10, 2007. He is currently Deputy Commander, United States European Command and the active military's only black four-star general. According to the Pentagon, Africa Command will help "promote peace and security and respond to crises on the continent." It will also coordinate military support for other diplomatic and development programs.  === External Links ===
*http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/heritage/african-american/
*http://www.coax.net/people/lwf/mil_rec.htm
[[Category:African AmericansAfrican_Americans]]
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