North Macedonia History
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History[edit | edit source]
Macedonia is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, from which it declared independence in 1991. The country became a member of the United Nations in 1993, but, as a result of an ongoing dispute with Greece over the use of the name Macedonia, was admitted under the provisional description the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
On 17 June 2018, Macedonia and Greece signed the Prespa agreement which would see the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia, pending approval from parliament. A 30 September non-binding national referendum on the matter passed with 90% approval, although it did not reach the required 50% turnout, leaving the final decision with parliament to ratify the result. On 19 October 2018, parliament approved of the name change with the required two-thirds majority needed to enact constitutional changes being reached. The government have now begun the procedure of completing the constitutional change needed to change the country's name, which is expected to be completed by January at the latest.
Τhe area was part of the Byzantine Empire and was often raided and settled by Slavic tribes beginning in the sixth century of the Christian era. Following centuries of contention between the Bulgarian, Byzantine, and Serbian empires, it gradually came under Ottoman dominion from the 14th until the early 20th century. Following the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913, historic Macedonia was divided primarily between Serbia and Greece, with a small portion remaining in Bulgaria. These regions are sometimes referred to as Aegean Macedonia (Greece), Vardar Macedonia (Serbia), and Pirin Macedonia (Bulgaria). In the aftermath of the First World War it became incorporated into the Serb-dominated Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, it was re-established as a republic and became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1963. Macedonia remained a constituent socialist republic within Yugoslavia until its peaceful secession in 1991.
On 11 January 2019, the Macedonian parliament approved the constitutional amendments required by the Prespa Agreement to officially change the country's name to North Macedonia. On 25 January, the Greek parliament ratified the Prespa Agreement. On 6 February, the Macedonian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nikola Dimitrov, signed in Brussels the accession protocol of North Macedonia into NATO. Source: Wikipedia
Timeline[edit | edit source]
- 1453-1912 Under Ottoman rule.
- 1912-1913 Balkan Wars (First and Second). Led to the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Most of Macedonia's European-held territories were divided between Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia.
- 1913-1915 After the end of World War I, the area returned to Serbian control as part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
- 1915 The Serbian government pursued a policy of forced Serbianisation in the region, which included systematic repression of Bulgarian activists, altering family surnames, internal colonization, forced labor, and intense propaganda.
- 1929 The Kingdom was officially renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and divided into provinces called banovinas. Southern Serbia, including all of what is now the Republic of Macedonia, became the Vardar Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
- 1941-1945 During World War II, Yugoslavia was occupied by the Axis powers and the Vardar Banovina was divided between Bulgaria and Italian-occupied Albania.
- 1991 The country officially celebrates 8 September 1991 as Independence day, with regard to the referendum endorsing independence from Yugoslavia, legalizing participation in the future union of the former states of Yugoslavia.
- 1999 The Kosovo War, when an estimated 360,000 ethnic Albanian refugees from Kosovo took refuge in the country.
- 2012 Inter-ethnic tensions flared in Macedonia, with incidents of violence between ethnic Albanians and Macedonians.
Internet Resources[edit | edit source]
- History of Macedonia
- Macedon: Ancient History
- History of Macedonia: Primary Documents
- Macedonian History, Pre-Historic Period thru Greco-Slav Conflict
- Macedonian History and Geography (Britanica)
- The Question of Macedonian Identity
- Culture of Macedonia
References[edit | edit source]
- Wikipedia contributors, "Republic of Macedonia," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Macedonia, accessed 23 January 2019.
- The Family History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, “Family History Record Profile: Macedonia,” Word document, private files of the FamilySearch Content Strategy Team, 1999.