New South Wales History
New South Wales was first settled by Europeans in 1788 with the arrival of eleven English ships with more than 1000 convicts and military personnel, known today as the 'First Fleeters.' The Second Fleet arrived in 1790 and saved the colony from starvation. The Third Fleet arrived in 1791 and included the first Irish transportees. The first free settler immigrants arrived in 1793. By 1828, when the first regular census was taken, the non-Aboriginal population of New South Wales was estimated at 36,598.
Van Dieman's Land (called Tasmania since 1856), originally a part of New South Wales, was separated off in 1825 and became an independent colony. Other states that were broken off of New South Wales include South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1861. The Northern Territory was separated out in 1911.