Indigenous Peoples of South Carolina
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Tribes and Bands of South Carolina[edit | edit source]
A list of American Indians who have lived in South Carolina has been compiled by John R. Swanton in his The Indian Tribes of North America Many of the tribes in this list may have had very limited contact with the area which became South Carolina. Some have become extinct or have been consolidated with other tribes. And some may simply be variant spellings.
Catawba, Cherokee, Chiaha, Chickasaw, Congaree, Creek, Cusabo, Eno, Keyauwee, Natchez, Pedee, Saluda, Santee, Sewee, Shakori, Shawnee, Sissipahaw, Sugaree, Waccamaw, Wateree, Waxhaw, Winyaw, Yamasee, Yuchi
Other tribes may have also been residents of the area of South Carolina, at least for a short time.
The following tribal names have been suggested as having resided in South Carolina, but no documentation for their contact with this state has been identified.
South Carolina State Recognized Tribes[edit | edit source]
- Beaver Creek Indians
- Edisto Natchez-Kusso Indians
- Pee Dee Nation of Upper South Carolina
- Pee Dee Tribe of South Carolina
- Santee Indian Organization (formerly White Oak Indian Community)
- Waccamaw Indian People
- Wassamasaw Tribe of Varnertown Indians
- Chaloklowa Chickasaw Indian People
- Eastern Cherokee
- Southern Iroquois and United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc.(also known as Cherokee Indian Tribe of South Carolina or ECSIUT)
- Natchez Indian Tribe
- Pee Dee Indian nation of Beaver Creek
- Piedmont American Indian Association of South Carolina.
Reservations[edit | edit source]
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
Reservation Map - South Carolina - Indian Reservations - Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
- Catawba Reservation, State, Tribe: Catawba
Records[edit | edit source]
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- Vital records
A Census of Catawba Indians residing in South Carolina and Haywood County, North Carolina was taken in 1849:
- Catawba Indian Records: The Second Census of the Catawba Indians and Other Miscellaneous Records. MSS. FHL Book 970.3 C281c
- The Never-ending Road: American Roma (Gypsy), Travellers, & "Others": Early Native American Indian Remnants & Other SC Ethnic Groups.
Family History Library[edit | edit source]
The Family History Library has some published documents and histories of Indians who lived in South Carolina in the colonial era.
- The Catawba, Old Cheraws, Cherokee, and other Indian nations are chronicled in Chapman J. Milling, Red Carolinians (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1940) FHL book 975.7 F2m; film 1425645 item 5
- To access other documents and histories of Indians in South Carolina available through the Family History Library, use the Place-names search at the FamilySearch Catalog for:
- SOUTH CAROLINA,[COUNTY] - NATIVE RACES
Websites[edit | edit source]
South Carolina's Information Highway (SCIWAY) This site gives information on the South Carolina Indians: tribes, Geography, history, Language, Place Names and Resources
See also:[edit | edit source]
South Carolina - Church Records for a list of missions
South Carolina - Military Records for a list of forts
References[edit | edit source]
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E (Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991) FHL book 973 E5
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online