Fort Apache Indian Reservation, White Mountain Apache Tribe, Arizona (Reservation)
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|Bureau of Indian Affairs|
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation, located in eastern Arizona.
- Established -- November 9, 1871 as part of the White Mountain Indian Reservations which was later divide into the San Carlos and Fort Apache Reservations in 1896.
- Agency (BIA) -- Fort Apache Agency
- Principal tribes -- White Mountain Apache
- Population -- 2010: The population of Fort Apache Reservation is 13,409. 1969: Tribal enrollment: 6,288
- The population is concentrated in several small communities, Whiteriver Area, Cibecue, Cedar Creek, and Carrizo
History[edit | edit source]
Though they now live in what is now Arizona, the Apache were more at home in New Mexico in 1492. They often sent their soldiers as far west as the Colorado River to keep the peace. They probably heard about the whites invading in the early 16th century and reacted by preparing for the eventual appearance of the Spanish whites in the Arizona and New Mexico region.
They increased the number of the soldiers in Arizona to defend Indian land against the invading whites. They stationed their soldiers as far west as what is now Yuma, Arizona and possibly even further west. However, there is evidence that the Gulf of California or Sea of Cortez, extended further north in the 15th and early 16th centuries. If it did, they could not have penetrated that region. After the eventual northern part of the Gulf of California receded to the area we now are familiar with, Apache soldiers forced their way past Yuma. In the Yuma region, they are known as the Yuma Apache.
1938 Tribe Constitution.
The Kickapoo[edit | edit source]
If you are wondering why information about the Kickapoo Chippewa's is being written here, it is because the Chippewa's are very much at home in Arizona. They are the Apache and Navajo. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Athabascan People or Dene People, speak Algonquin. Not only that but also because there is a group of Kickapoo Chippewa's in Arizona clinging to their Anishinabe identity and trying to gain State and Federal Recognition. They live just west of their old Chiricahua Reservation. Mainly around the Douglas, Arizona region.
And if you think the Kickapoo are not Chippewa or Anishinabe, you are wrong. According to the 19th century Ojibway author Peter Jones, the Kickapoo speak Chippewa which means they are Chippewa. They are from the Saginaw Chippewa's of southeastern Michigan and northern Ohio. You have no choice but to deal with this subject. We are following the trail as told to do in the Seven Fires Prophecy. Click this link http://www.blackelectorate.com/articles.asp?ID=1321 to read about the Kickapoo of Arizona.
[edit | edit source]
On November 9, 1871, the United States created the White Mountain Apache Reservation. It icluded the area shown at the Indian land cessions map at the Library of Congress, with the number 546. It is known as the San Carlos Addition. On July 21, 1874, the United States restored to the public domain, that area of White Mountain Apache Reservation, with the number 573. On April 27, 1876, the United States restored to the public domain that area of White Mountain Apache Reservation, with the number 592. On January 26, 1877, the United States restored to the public domain that area of White Mountain Apache Reservation with the number 601.
On March 31, 1877, the United States restored to the public domain that area of the White Mountain Apache Reservation, with the number 602. The area with the number 602 is a bit awkward. It is within the land area with the number 541, which has links to the June 10, 1896 San Carlos Mineral Strip Act. It (the land area with the number 541) was restored to the public domain on December 14, 1872. However, it was restored to White Mountain Apache Reservation or San Carlos Reservation later on. On December 14, 1872, the United States created the Chiricahua Reservation. Part of Chiricahua Reservation has links to what is now San Carlos Reservation.
San Carlos Addition
[edit | edit source]
As stated, on December 14, 1872, the United States created the Chiricahua Reservation. Land was added on to White Mountain Apache Reservation exactly where the original San Carlos Reservation is located, also on December 14, 1872. Part of the San Carlos Addition was restored to the public domain, on August 5, 1873. It has the land area with the number 546. With the exceptions of the land areas wth the numbers 541 and 602, the western part of the San Carlos Addition, remained a part of White Mountain Apache Reservation.
Since there is strong evidence that Chiricahua Reservation was possibly added on to White Mountain Apache Reservation, it should be included as a part of White Mountain Apache Reservation. Reservation leaders did not agree to cede either land area. Afterwards, a long war followed.
The 1896 Great Falls Deportations[edit | edit source]
In June and July of 1896, the United States rounded up several thousand Chippewa's from the Little Shell Pembina Blackfeet Reservation (aka Turtle Mountain Reservation) to deport them out of the Reservation. The Deportations took about two months. Many Reservations were selected to deport the Montana Chippewa's to and the White Mountain Apache Reservation was one.
In 1896, the United States prepared the White Mountain Apache Reservation for the arrival of the Montana Chippewa's. Soon after, they created two Reservations for them. One is Fort Apache Reservation, while the other is San Carlos Reservation. The United States kept their promise but did not keep their promise about Chippewa children. They forcefully took the Chippewa children and sent them to white controlled boarding schools, where they could not speak in their native language. In the process, the Chippewa children lost their Chippewa Tribal identity.
On rare occasions they were allowed to return home to their parents but they felt foreign. They could not speak with their parents. The whites actually stole the Indian children and brainwashed them. That is why today the Indians who live on Fort Apache Reservation and San Carlos Reservation, will not accept a Chippewa Tribal identity.
On February 25, 1896, the United States reached an agreement with the leaders of White Mountain Apache Reservation, to allow for the relocation of several hundred Montana Chippewa's to the White Mountain Apache Reservation. It (the agreement) is very similar the the agreements the United States reached with the leaders of Blackfeet Reservation and Fort Belknap Reservation, also in 1896 (June 30). They actually commenced to negotiate about the planned Deportations in 1894. After chiefs Little Shell III and Red Thunder, were arrested in May of 1895, the United States quickly prepared for the planned Deportations. It took a year.
It (the agreement) dealt with mineral entry or ceding land for mineral purposes. I'm referring to the San Carlos Mineral Strip which covered 232,320 acres. It was supposedly ceded on June 30, 1896. They really reached agreements to allow the Montana Chippewa's to relocate to this Reservation. What actually transpired, was an agreement to create two Reservations out of the White Mountain Apache Reservation. It was approved on February 7, 1897. The San Carlos Mineral Strip was returned to the Reservation and is the southwestern part of San Carlos Reservation. Though San Carlos Reservation was ceded to the Montana Chippewa's, many of the Montana Chippewa's also moved to Fort Apache Reservation.
We were told to look along the trail for evidence. I'm referring to the Seven Fires Prophecy of course. The events in Montana and Arizona in 1896, are connected. That is very obvious. You have to deal with this. A rebirth of the Chippewa Nation is involved. If you refuse to cooperate, you will lose everything.
Records[edit | edit source]
Land Records: All land is tribally owned
For Further Reading[edit | edit source]
See also American Indian For Further Reading.
References[edit | edit source]
- Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2