Dominican Republic Colonial Records

From FamilySearch Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Dominican Republic Wiki Topics
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg.png
Beginning Research
Record Types
Dominican Republic Background
Local Research Resources

Spanish Colonization (1492-1795)[edit | edit source]

The first colony established in the New World under Spain was in 1492 called Santo Domingo or officially called Captaincy General of Santo Domingo. They held this colony until July 22, 1795, when the French Republic and Spanish crown signed the Treaty of Basle and the colony was ceded to France. [1]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

French Colonization (1795-1809)[edit | edit source]

The Spanish colony was ceded first to France in 1795 as part of the Treaty of Basel between the defeated Spanish and the French, then it was invaded by the British in 1796. Five years later, black slaves in rebellion invaded from Saint-Domingue. The devastated Spanish-speaking colony was then occupied by the French in 1802, in spite of the dramatic defeat of Napoleon's forces at the hands of the former French slaves who proclaimed the independent Republic of Haiti in 1804. Santo Domingo was invaded again by Haitians in 1805 and then yet again by the British in 1809. The Spanish reclaimed it later that year. [2]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Spanish Colonization (1809-1821)[edit | edit source]

The Spanish reclaimed Santo Domingo later that year but found the colony in economic ruins and demographic decline. After a rebellion is 1812, Spain's hold over Santo Domingo remained precarious. Following the rebellion of the Army in Spain during 1820, which restored the liberal constitution, some of the colonial administrators in Santo Domingo broke with the mother country; and on December 1, 1821, the Spanish Lieutenant Governor, José Núñez de Cáceres, proclaimed the independence of "Spanish Haiti" The ruler of Haiti invaded Santo Domingo and José Núñez de Cáceres surrendered the capital on February 9, 1822. [3]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Haitian Occupation (1822-1844)[edit | edit source]

The Unification of Hispaniola was the annexation and merger of then-independent Republic of Spanish Haiti (formerly Santo Domingo) into the Republic of Haiti, that lasted twenty-two years, from 9 February 1822 to 27 February 1844. On February 27, 1844, the Trinitarios (a secret society) declared independence from Haiti, backed by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle-rancher from El Seibo who commanded a private army of peons who worked on his estates. In the Dominican Republic, Independence Day is celebrated as February 27, the day of revolt against Haitian occupation. [4]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

First Republic (1844-1861)[edit | edit source]

The Dominican Republic's first constitution was adopted on November 6, 1844. The state was commonly known as Santo Domingo in English until the early 20th century. In March 1861, Pedro Santana officially restored the Dominican Republic to Spain. [5]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Spanish Colonization (1861-1865)[edit | edit source]

In 1861, Pedro Santana inherited a bankrupt government on the brink of collapse. Santana initially was named Capitan-General of the new Spanish province, but it soon became obvious that Spanish authorities planned to deprive him of his power, leading him to resign in 1862. On August 16, 1863, a national war of restoration began in Santiago, where the rebels established a provisional government. When the American Civil War ended, in March 1865, Queen Isabella annulled the annexation and independence was restored, with the last Spanish troops departing by July. [6]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Second Republic (1865-1916)[edit | edit source]

By the time the Spanish departed in 1865, most of the main towns lay in ruins and the island was divided and the numerous military and guerrilla leaders began to fight among themselves. After years of hostilities, in June 1914 U.S. President Woodrow Wilson issued an ultimatum for the two sides to end hostilities and agree on a new president, or have the United States impose one. In April 1916, The United States began occupation of the Dominican Republic. [7]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

United States occupation (1916-1924)[edit | edit source]

United States Marines landed in Santo Domingo on May 15, 1916. In November, Wilson announced the imposition of a U.S. military government, with Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp as Military Governor. In the 1920 United States presidential election Republican candidate Warren Harding criticized the occupation and promised eventual U.S. withdrawal. The occupation ended in 1924, with a democratically elected government in the Dominican Republic. [8]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Third Republic (1924-1965)[edit | edit source]

The occupation ended in 1924, with a democratically elected government under president Vásquez. President Vásquez served for six years and then was forced into exile. [9] Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina then served as dictator who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. [10] Because of much civil unrest, the United States under President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered U.S. forces to restore order. [11]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Second United States occupation (1965-1966)[edit | edit source]

In 1965, what was initially known as Operation Power Pack, 27,677 U.S. troops were ultimately ordered to the Dominican Republic. [12] Elections were held in 1966, in the aftermath of which Joaquín Balaguer was elected into the presidential seat. Later in the same year international troops departed from the country. [13]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records

Fourth Republic (1966-Present)[edit | edit source]

In June 1966, Joaquín Balaguer, leader of the Reformist Party was elected and then re-elected to office in May 1970 and May 1974. As of present, the republic still stands. [14]

Record collection Years covered Record type Language Who is in the records


References[edit | edit source]

  1. Wikipedia contributors, "Captaincy General of Santo Domingo," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Captaincy_General_of_Santo_Domingo, accessed 23 November 2020.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Spanish_colony:_1492%E2%80%931795, accessed 23 November 2020.
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Spanish_colony:_1809%E2%80%931821, accessed 23 November 2020.
  4. Wikipedia contributors, "Unification of Hispaniola," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unification_of_Hispaniola, accessed 23 November 2020.
  5. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Independence:_First_Republic_1844%E2%80%931861, accessed 23 November 2020.
  6. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Spanish_colony:_1861%E2%80%931865, accessed 23 November 2020.
  7. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Restoration:_Second_Republic_1865%E2%80%931916, accessed 23 November 2020.
  8. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#United_States_occupation:_1916%E2%80%931924, accessed 23 November 2020.
  9. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#The_rise_and_fall_of_Trujillo:_Third_Republic_1924%E2%80%931965, accessed 23 November 2020.
  10. Wikipedia contributors, "Rafael Trujillo," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafael_Trujillo, accessed 23 November 2020.
  11. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Dominican_Civil_War_and_second_United_States_occupation_1965%E2%80%9366, accessed 23 November 2020.
  12. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Dominican_Civil_War_and_second_United_States_occupation_1965%E2%80%9366, accessed 23 November 2020.
  13. Wikipedia contributors, "Dominican Civil War," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominican_Civil_War, accessed 23 November 2020.
  14. Wikipedia contributors, "History of the Dominican Republic," in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Dominican_Republic#Fourth_Republic_1966%E2%80%93present, accessed 23 November 2020.